Congress Basic Organization Bicameral One term per Congress

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Congress

Congress

Basic Organization • • Bicameral One term per Congress (112 th) Two sessions per

Basic Organization • • Bicameral One term per Congress (112 th) Two sessions per term (one/year) Bills must pass both houses

 • Apportionment House of Representatives – Distribution of seats among states – Based

• Apportionment House of Representatives – Distribution of seats among states – Based on population • Reapportionment – Census every ten years • Congressional Districting – – Not in Constitution 1842 became norm 1962 Baker v. Carr malapportionment unequal pop. Gerrymandering • Packing and Cracking

Mitt Romney lost Pennsylvania by 5 percent, but Republican Representatives out number Democrats 13

Mitt Romney lost Pennsylvania by 5 percent, but Republican Representatives out number Democrats 13 to 5. Romney lost by 2 percent. Republicans won the House by 12 to 4. Dems do it, too. This is in Chicago. Rachel Maddow Show clip (start at ~4 min) https: //www. youtube. co m/watch? v=pkbe. SUy. Dd CM Maryland

House of Representatives • Terms of Office – 2 years – 90% of incumbents

House of Representatives • Terms of Office – 2 years – 90% of incumbents reelected • The Job – – • Voting Committee assignments Casework Pork Qualifications – 25 years old – 7 years prior living – Residents of state • Conduct – – Ethics committee Censure Expulsion Reprimand

Senate • Terms of Office – 6 years – 1/3 elected every election –

Senate • Terms of Office – 6 years – 1/3 elected every election – Two per state • The Job – – • Voting Committee assignments Casework Pork Qualifications – 30 years old – 9 years a citizen – Residents of state • Conduct – Ethics committee – Censure – Expulsion

House Senate Local districts Two years Entire state Six years Originally elected by voters

House Senate Local districts Two years Entire state Six years Originally elected by voters Impeaches 435 members More formal rules Originally elected by state legislatures (1913) Convicts 100 members Fewer rules Limited debate Floor controlled Less prestige Starts bills for revenues Local and narrow leadership Speaker of the House Extended debate Unanimous consent rules More prestige Advice and consent National leadership Majority Leader

Roles • • • Policymaker Representative Constituent Servant Committee Member Politician Party Member

Roles • • • Policymaker Representative Constituent Servant Committee Member Politician Party Member

Committees • Standing – 20 -25 • • • Conference Joint Select or Special

Committees • Standing – 20 -25 • • • Conference Joint Select or Special Steering Rules Sub- Current Senate Committees Standing Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Appropriations Armed Services Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Budget Commerce, Science, and Transportation Energy and Natural Resources Environment and Public Works Finance Foreign Relations Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Judiciary Rules and Administration Small Business and Entrepreneurship Veterans' Affairs Special, Select, and Other Indian Affairs Select Committee on Ethics Select Committee on Intelligence Special Committee on Aging Joint Committee on Printing Joint Committee on Taxation Joint Committee on the Library Joint Economic Committee

What’s important? • • • Seniority Chairmen Specialization Reciprocity Careerism Incumbents Term limits Calendar

What’s important? • • • Seniority Chairmen Specialization Reciprocity Careerism Incumbents Term limits Calendar Rider Express Powers And more…

Smaller stuff • Senate Rules • Filibuster • Unanimous Consent • Markup • Earmark

Smaller stuff • Senate Rules • Filibuster • Unanimous Consent • Markup • Earmark • Speaker of the House • President Pro Tempore • Majority Leader • Whip

Even more stuff • • • Mostly men Wealthier, Older and Whiter than the

Even more stuff • • • Mostly men Wealthier, Older and Whiter than the population Mostly lawyers Franking Polarization Others? http: //www. cbsnews. com/video/watch/? id=50134480 n&tag=content. Main; cbs. Carousel