Confucianism, Taoism, Shintoism, Buddhism L-ESE Asia 2007
Confucianism u. Founder: – Confucius, a Chinese scholar during the 6 th century BC. – Beiliefs are STRONG relationships and order. – Chinese
u. Main Confucianism Beliefs: – 1. No afterlife, – 2. Only living currently in a peaceful, stable society. – 3. Respect of elders and family is esp. important. – 4. There is no emphasis on God or any supreme being.
Confucianism u Main Beliefs: (Cont. ) – 5. The five relationships rule.
u. Five Confucianism Relationships: 1. ruler/subject 2. father/son 3. husband/wife 4. brother/younger brother 5. friend/friend
u Cultures Confucianism most strongly influenced by Confucianism are: u China (including Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Macau), u Japan, u Korea, u Vietnam u various territories (including Singapore) settled predominantly by Chinese people.
u. Sacred Texts: Analectsthese are Confucius’ teachings that were written down by his students.
Taoism u. Founder: –Followers claim it was founded by the mysterious Laozi. –Came into being in China during the 6 th century BC.
Taoism u. How it came about: – 1. Much like Confucianism, Taoism is a reaction to the chaos and warfare of China at the time. – 2. Unlike Confucianism, Taoism does not think the answer lies inside society and with sound, fair government. – 3. Taoists advocate abandoning society and living in harmony with nature.
Taoism u. Main Beliefs: – 1. A universal force called the Dao (the Way) controls all things. – 2. Humans are the only creatures that consistently ignore and try to reject the Dao. This causes humans unhappiness. – 3. Laozi suggested returning to nature and living in peace instead of living in society (cities) and being unhappy.
Taoism u. Main Beliefs: (Cont. ) – 4. Followers believe that the Dao causes all things so questions of right/wrong really make no sense as whatever will be, will be. – 5. Why does the leaf fall off a tree? It doesn’t think about it, it just does. This is the work of the Dao.
Taoism u. Sacred Texts: –Dao De Ching is the holy book of Taoism and contains all of Laozi’s advice. –It means: “Classic of the Way and Its Power”
Shintoism Shinto: • Japanese word meaning: -“the way of the gods” • Japanese cult and religion • Originating in prehistoric times. (It Occupied an important national position for long periods in the history of Japan, particularly in recent times. )
Shintoism During its early period, the body of religious belief and practice called Shinto was without a name and had no fixed dogma, moral precepts, or sacred writings.
Shintoism Worship is centered on a pantheon of spirits, or kami, mainly divinities personifying aspects of the natural world, (such as the sky, the earth, heavenly bodies, and storms).
Shintoism Rituals include: -prayers of thanksgiving; -offerings of valuables, such as swords and armor and, especially, cloth; -and ablutionary purification from crime and defilement.
Siddhartha Guatama u. A. 6 th century. u. B. Hindu prince in northern India. u. C. Lived a sheltered life because his father. forbade him to leave the city walls. u. D. Married when 18 and had a child.
u E. He snuck out one night and saw three things that changed his life forever: – 1. old man – 2. sick man – 3. dead man
u. F. Siddhartha began to question why this suffering existed?
u. A. In Search of Truth Gave up wife and family in search of truth. u. B. Meditated daily. u. C. Became enlightened under a bodhi tree. u. D. Started teaching his understanding of life.
Four Noble Truths u 1. Life is full of pain and suffering. u 2. Pain and suffering are caused by greed and materialism. u 3. To rid oneself of pain and suffering is to renounce all material objects. u 4. The way to end desire is to follow the Eightfold Path.
Eightfold Path u 1. right view—we need to know the Four Noble Truths u 2. right intentions—we need to decide what we really want u 3. right speech—we need to speak truth and speak well of others
Eightfold Path u 4. right action—do not kill; do not steal; do not lie; be chaste; do not use drugs or alcohol. u 5. right livelihood—do work that is uplifting u 6. right effort (work hard)
Eightfold Path u 7. right mindfulness— control your senses u 8. right concentration— meditate
Similarities with Hindusim u. A. Reincarnation and karma u. B. Nonviolence u. C. Simple life u. D. Self-denial
Differences with Hinduism u. A. Did not like or agree with the caste system u. B. Nirvana— ultimate state of nothingness— reunion with the Great World Soul