- Slides: 17
Conformity & Obedience Social influence TYPES of conformity: internalisation, identification and compliance EXPLANATIONS for conformity: normative and informational
Social Influence Social influence is the scientific study of the ways in which people’s thoughts, feelings and behaviours are affected by other people In which ways do other people affect how you act?
Conformity (Majority Influence) DEFINITION Conformity is the tendency to change what we do, think or say in response to the influence of real or imagined pressure from others. • Have a look at this brief You. Tube clip
There are different types of conformity: 1. Compliance 2. Identification 3. Internalisation Herbert Kelman (1958) suggested that there are three ways in which people conform to the opinion of a majority
There are different types of conformity
Compliance Conforming publicly but continuing privately to disagree It is the shallowest form of conformity Example • Ben has just started university and ends up in shared accommodation with people who are vegetarians. Ben decides not to share his views that it is ok to eat meat and does not eat any in front of them – but he does so in private
Identification A moderate form of conformity where we act the same as the group because we share their values and want to be accepted. The change of belief or behaviour is often temporary Example: Another individual in this situation may decide that they will also not eat meat that maybe the vegetarians have a point. However, they realise that they do not really have the same values and beliefs and really they see it as ok to eat meat and so return to being a meat eater
Internalisation A deep type of conformity where a person conforms publicly and privately because they have internalised and accepted the views of the group It is the deepest form of conformity Example • A person may become a vegetarian after sharing a flat with a group of vegetarians at university and now they are convinced by the change and think that vegetarianism is a good idea and becomes a vegetarian for the rest of their life
Q. The following phrases refer to different types of conformity. Select the two phrases that describe internalisation. A The deepest level of conformity. B The individual conforms publicly with the rest of the group but may privately disagree with them. C The beliefs of the group become part of the individual’s own belief system. D The individual goes along with the group but does not agree with them. E The individual changes his/her beliefs, but it is a temporary change. ANSWER: A + C
Explanations for conformity Social psychologists think we have psychological needs that lead to conformity: Normative social influence Informational social influence
Explanations for conformity • Deutsch and Gerard (1955) developed a two-process theory which proposes that there are two main reasons why people conform. • They are based on two central human needs: Øthe need to be liked Øthe need to be right
Explanations for conformity Normative Social Influence This occurs when we wish to be liked by the majority group, so we go along with them even though we may not agree with them. This is really just following the crowd in order to fit in with the ‘norm’ and be accepted by the group. Informational Social Influence This occurs when we look to the majority group for information as we are unsure about the way in which to behave. A person will conform because they genuinely believe the majority to be right as we look to them for the right answer.
Supporting research: NORMATIVE INFLUENCE: Schultz et al (2008) found that hotel guests who were exposed to normative message that “ 75% of guests re-used their towels each day (rather than requiring a fresh one)” reduced their own towel use by 25% suggesting that people shape their behaviour out of a desire to fit in with their reference group. INFORMATIONAL INFLUENCE: Wittenbrink and Henley (1996) found that participants exposed to negative information about African Americans (which they were led to believe was the majority view) later reported more negative beliefs about a black individual.
Evaluations of two-process model Normative Research shown that NSI does not affect everyone's behaviour in the same way. E. g. people less concerned about being liked are less affected by NSI Mc. Ghee and Teevan – students high in need of affiliation more likely to conform. Showing the desire to be liked is what leads to conformity Informational Lucas et al students conformed more to an incorrect answer when they found the task difficult in a maths problem. Showing people conform in situations where they feel they don’t know the answer. Individual differences – Perrin and Spencer found very little conformity and less likely to seek information from others. • There is an idea that behaviour is either due to ISI or NSI • But it has been suggested that both processes are involved • Found that conformity is reduced when a dissenting pp is involved. Reducing NSI and ISI
Samira has just started a new job at New Look. She notices that most of her new workmates tend to return a bit late from their lunch break. Samira doesn’t want to get in trouble with the boss but she does want to get on with the rest of her team, so she starts coming back a few minutes late. 1. What type of conformity is shown by Samira? Explain your answer. (2 marks) 2. Use your knowledge of explanations of conformity to explain why Samira comes back late for work from her lunch break (4 marks)
http: //youtu. be/DXci. ZVUSFZ 8 Resisting conformity in Thailand
Homework 1. Ensure you have made notes on ‘Conformity: Types and Explanations’ Your notes should include: ØTYPES OF CONFORMITY: internalisation, identification and compliance ØEXPLANATIONS FOR CONFORMITY: normative and informational 2. Complete the classwork tasks on P 3, 4 & 5.