Conformity and Obedience to Authority What is Conformity

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Conformity and Obedience to Authority

Conformity and Obedience to Authority

What is Conformity? n Quick Write: 5 minutes n What do you think of

What is Conformity? n Quick Write: 5 minutes n What do you think of when you hear the word ‘conformity’? Why do people conform? What are some examples of conformity that you observe in high school? In society in general? What are some examples of times YOU have ‘conformed’?

What is Conformity? n Conformity can be defined as adjusting one's behavior or thinking

What is Conformity? n Conformity can be defined as adjusting one's behavior or thinking to match those of other people or a group standard. There are lots of reasons why people conform, including the desire/need to fit in or be accepted by others and maintaining order in one’s life. n For example, when you go to class, do you sit in a chair like other students or sit in the aisle? Do you face the front of the room like everyone else or do you sit facing the back wall? WHY? ? http: //www. alleydog. com/glossary/definition. cfm? term=Conformity

Types of Conformity n Herbert Kelman (1958) suggests 3 types of conformity: n n

Types of Conformity n Herbert Kelman (1958) suggests 3 types of conformity: n n n Compliance- A change in behavior without a change in opinion (going along with the group). Internalization- A change in behavior and opinion. 'True Conformity'. Identification- Adopting the group's views because value group membership. Often temporary.

Partner Activity: (10 minutes) n Write a scenario that illustrates each type of conformity

Partner Activity: (10 minutes) n Write a scenario that illustrates each type of conformity (three total scenarios): n n n Compliance- A change in behavior without a change in opinion (going along with the group). Internalization- A change in behavior and opinion. 'True Conformity'. Identification- Adopting the group's views because value group membership. Often temporary.

Quick Questions… Be prepared to answer! Is CONFORMITY a good or a bad thing?

Quick Questions… Be prepared to answer! Is CONFORMITY a good or a bad thing? Why? n List some social norms and decide if they are positive or negative. n What are three social norms that you are glad exist? n What would life be like WITHOUT social norms? n

The Solomn Asch Experiment n n The Asch conformity experiments were a series of

The Solomn Asch Experiment n n The Asch conformity experiments were a series of studies that starkly demonstrated the power of conformity in groups Experimenters led by Solomon Asch asked students to participate in a "vision test. " n n All but one of the participants were part of the experiment. Those who were part of the experiment were told to give the wrong answer to the question. The study was to look at what the actual participant responded—the correct answer or what the group said.

The Solomn Asch Experiment n The participants -- the real subjects and those involved

The Solomn Asch Experiment n The participants -- the real subjects and those involved in the experiment-- were all seated in a classroom where they were told to announce their judgment of the length of several lines drawn on a series of displays. They were asked which line was longer than the other, which were the same length, etc. Those involved in the experiment had been prearranged to all give an incorrect answer to the tests.

The Solomn Asch Experiement n http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=TYIh 4 Mk cf. JA

The Solomn Asch Experiement n http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=TYIh 4 Mk cf. JA

Obedience to Authority n n What are some ‘commands’ you hear every day? Who

Obedience to Authority n n What are some ‘commands’ you hear every day? Who gives you these ‘commands’? Why do you obey (or not obey) the commands you are given? We hear or come across commands, instructions, directions and orders everyday. n What is it that makes us obey (or disobey) them? Millions of people were killed in Nazi Germany in concentration camps but Hitler couldn't have killed them all, nor could a handful of people. What made all those people follow the orders they were given? Were they afraid, or was there something in their personality that made them like that? In order to obey authority, the obeying person has to accept that it is legitimate for the command to be made of them.

Obedience to Authority n Explanations of why we obey fall into one of two

Obedience to Authority n Explanations of why we obey fall into one of two groups: n n We obey because of social pressures and influences in the environment, including fear We obey because of some characteristic of our personality

The Milgram Experiement n Milgram (1963) wanted to investigate the level of obedience to

The Milgram Experiement n Milgram (1963) wanted to investigate the level of obedience to an authority figure n n n Teacher/learner Administration of shocks (from very low levels to very high levels) ‘Teacher’ was the one who was being studied— would he obey authority and continue to administer these shocks?

The Milgram Experiement n Milgram asked various people the maximum voltage they would give

The Milgram Experiement n Milgram asked various people the maximum voltage they would give before refusing to continue. This is what he found:

Predictions by following groups of level at which people would refuse to administer shock

Predictions by following groups of level at which people would refuse to administer shock (%) Actual shock levels at which subjects refused to continue (%) Shock level (volts) Psychiatrists Students Middle class adults Slight shock (15 v) 10. 3 0 12. 5 0 Moderate shock 48. 7 25. 8 42. 5 0 Strong shock 92. 3 96. 8 82. 5 0 Very strong shock 97. 4 100 90. 0 0 Intense shock 100 100 12. 5 Extremely intense shock 100 100 23. 5 Danger, severe shock 100 100 35. 0 XXX shock (450 v) 100 100 35. 0

The Milgram Experiment n All groups surveyed thought that by “intense shock” people would

The Milgram Experiment n All groups surveyed thought that by “intense shock” people would have stopped obeying. In fact, only 35% had refused to obey by 450 volts, an alarming 65% were willing to give the full “XXX shock. ”

Why did people obey? n n n Legitimacy of the authority figure: Compared with

Why did people obey? n n n Legitimacy of the authority figure: Compared with experiments in a run-down office building, subjects were far more obedient in the highly respected and trusted environment of a prestigious university. When the experimenter wore a gray rather than white lab coat, obedience dropped. Proximity of the victim: When the teacher and the learner were much closer to each other obedience dropped. If the teacher actually had to touch the learner obedience dropped even further. Social support for disobedience: When the teacher had someone else to support the decision, there was much less obedience. Diffusion of responsibility: When the teacher didn't have to press the switch but someone else did, obedience rose to 92. 5 % (as compared to the 65% above) Proximity of the experimenter: When the experimenter left the room, obedience dropped

The Stanford Prison Experiment n n A study designed to study the psychological effects

The Stanford Prison Experiment n n A study designed to study the psychological effects of becoming a prisoner or a guard. (Role playing) Conducted in 1971 by Stanford Psychology Professor Phillip Zimbardo. Students were assigned to a role of either prisoner or guard (based on a coin toss) and lived in the basement of one of the buildings. The experiment was supposed to last for two weeks, but was shut down after only one week.

Connections…. Think about both CONFORMITY and OBEDIENCE TO AUTHORITY as you read The Crucible….

Connections…. Think about both CONFORMITY and OBEDIENCE TO AUTHORITY as you read The Crucible…. n Think about INDIVIDUALITY as we progress through this last unit: The Individual, Nature, and Society n