- Slides: 15
Conflicts Over Land Chapter 10, Section 4
Moving Native Americans ► The Cherokee Indians resided in Georgia in the early 1800’s. ► By the early 1800’s the Cherokee had their own schools, newspaper and constitution. ► The Cherokee farmed some of Georgia’s richest land in 1829 gold was discovered there. ► Settlers, miners and speculators began trespassing on Cherokee territory in search of riches.
Moving Native Americans ► Many settlers wanted president Andrew Jackson to relocate the Native Americans living in the Southeast. ► Andrew Jackson, a man of the frontier, supported the settlers demand for Native American land.
Indian Removal Act ► In 1830 Congress passed the Indian Removal Act. ► The United States offers to buy land from the Cherokee Indians. In return, the Cherokee must relocate to Indian Territory (an area in present day Oklahoma).
The Cherokee Nation ► The Cherokee Nation refused to give up their land in Georgia. ► The Cherokee sued the state of Georgia for allowing white Americans to invade their land. The Case goes to the Supreme Court. ► In Worcester Vs. Georgia, Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that Georgia had no right to interfere with the Cherokee.
The Cherokee Nation ► President Jackson had supported Georgia’s efforts to remove the Cherokee. ► Jackson ignored the Supreme Court’s ruling. “John Marshall has made his decision, now let him try to enforce it. ”
Jackson Reacts ► In 1835 the federal government persuaded a few Cherokee to give up their land. Most of the 17, 000 Cherokee, however, refused. ► In 1837 President Andrew Jackson sent General Winfield Scott and 7, 000 federal troops into the region to remove the Cherokee from their land lead them west (present day Oklahoma). ► General Scott threatened to use force if the Cherokee did not comply.
The Trail of Tears ► The Cherokee knew that fighting would only lead to their destruction. ► Men, women, children and the elderly (many of them in chains and shackles) would be forced to walk hundreds of miles. ► The number of Cherokee that die on the March West is debated. Government records stated around 800. Based on eyewitness accounts, the number is probably closer to 4, 500.
Native American Resistance ► Following the Cherokee, other Native American tribes such as the Creek, Seminole, Chickasaw, and Choctaw would be forced to give up their land relocate to the Indian Territory (Oklahoma). ► Some of these tribes put up resistance against being relocated.
Native American Resistance ► In Florida, the Seminole chief Osceola and some of his people refused to leave their tribal land. ► In 1835 the Seminole joined forces with a group of African Americans who had run away to escape slavery. They attacked settlements along the Florida coast. ► The Seminole War would last from 1835 to 1842. United States military Vs. Seminole Indians.
Native American Resistance ► By 1842, more than 1, 500 American soldiers had died in the Seminole wars. However, the majority of the Seminoles had been captured and forced to move West.
Native Americans ► After the majority of the Southeast Native American tribes had been relocated, they began developing their own governments, farms and schools in present day Oklahoma. ► These tribes even developed their own police force called the “Lighthorsemen”.