- Slides: 19
CONDITIONAL CLAUSES complex clauses: main clause + subordinate clause main clause: can stand on its own subordinate clause: starts with the conjunction; depends on the main clause and cannot stand on its own If you listen carefully, you will learn this. subordinate (if) clause main clause
CONDITIONAL CLAUSES the position of each clause isn’t important the sentence can start with both, the main or the subordinate clause however, it the sentence starts with the subordinate clause it has to be separated with a comma If you don’t come on time, we will leave without you. We will leave without you if you don’t come on time.
ZERO CONDITIONAL expresses something always true both clauses have present simple verb e. g. If you heat water, it boils. If you press the switch, the computer comes on. If it rains, it pours.
FIRST CONDITIONAL expresses future possibility – something that might happen main clause has future simple verb subordinate (if) clause has present simple verb e. g. If we hurry, we will catch the bus. If it doesn’t rain, we will have a picnic. I won’t get any better if I don’t practice. We will help you if you wait one moment.
FIRST CONDITIONAL some other verb forms are also possible present continuous and present perfect can come in the subordinate (if) clause e. g. If we are expecting visitors, we will have to clean the flat. If you are having a party, we will bring snacks. If you have finished with the computer, I will use it. If you have read the book, I will read it.
FIRST CONDITIONAL modal verbs, going to future and future continuous can come in the main clause e. g. If it doesn’t rain, we will be having a picnic. If you haven’t got a modem, you can’t surf. If he jogs regularly, he might lose weight. If he is going on a job interview, he should wear a tie. If he asks me to marry him, I’m going to say yes.
FIRST CONDITIONAL except future possibility, first conditionals can also express offers, suggestions, warnings and threats e. g. If you need a ticket, I can get you one. If you feel like seeing the sights, we can take the bus tour. If you go on like this, you’ll make yourself ill. If you don’t apologize, I’ll never speak to you again.
SECONDITIONAL expresses an imaginary or unreal situation in the present main clause has would + verb subordinate (if) clause has past simple verb e. g. If I got up earlier, I wouldn’t always be late. (but I don’t get up early, so I am always late) If I had enough money, I would buy this book. (but I don’t have enough money, so I won’t buy it)
SECONDITIONAL some other verb forms are also possible past continuous can come in the subordinate (if) clause we often use were instead of was especially with If I were you. . . phrase e. g. If Rachel were playing her stereo, it wouldn’t be so quiet here. (but she isn’t playing, so it is quiet) If you were talking to me, I would listen to you. (but you are talking to somebody else, and he/she isn’t listening to you)
SECONDITIONAL modal verbs could & might can come in the main clause e. g. If we had a calculator, we could work this out a lot quicker. (but we don’t have it) If she worked harder, she might do even better at her studies. (but she doesn’t work hard enough)
SECONDITIONAL seconditional can also express offers & suggestions, but it is less direct than the first conditional and the speaker is not sure about it e. g. If you needed a ticket, I could get you one. If you wanted to see the sights, we could take a bus tour.
COMPARE FIRST CONDITIONAL If I go shopping , I will need some money. (give me the money, because I will go) If I win the jackpot today, I will buy you whatever you want. (there is a chance of winning) SECONDITIONAL If I went shopping , I would need some money. (but I don’t need the money, because I am not going) If I won the jackpot today, I would buy you whatever you wanted. (there is no chance of winning) If Sarah calls, can you tell her to call back later? (she will call, but I won’t be here to answer) If Sarah called, could you tell her to call back later? (she probably won’t call, I’m telling you this just in case she does)
SIMILAR STRUCTURES there also some other conjunctions which can appear in these structures when can be used in zero conditional & means ‘every time’ it can also be used in first conditional to express certainty e. g. When you run, you use up energy. (every time you run, you use up energy) Will you call me when you hear some news? (you will definitely hear some news)
SIMILAR STRUCTURES unless can be used in all conditionals and means ‘if. . . not’ e. g. I can’t see if I don’t wear glasses. = I can’t see unless I wear glasses. If you can’t pay the bill, you will have to leave. = Unless you can pay the bill, you will have to leave. I wouldn’t say that if I didn’t believe it. = I wouldn’t say that unless I believed it.
SIMILAR STRUCTURES in case can be used in all conditionals and means the same as ‘if’ we use it to talk about doing something to avoid a possible problem later on e. g. Take a sandwich in case you get hungry. I will reserve a seat today in case the train is full tomorrow. She took two photos in case one of them didn’t come out. by Irene, 2009
They would be offended if I ( not go ) to their party. If you take more exercise, you ( feel )better. If they offered me the job, I think I ( take ) it. A lot of people would be out of work if the factory (close down ). If I sold my car, I ( not get )much money for it. I will be very upset if you ( not call ) me. I′m sure she (understand ) if you explained the situation to her. They will go without him if he (not come)on time. What would happen if someone (press) this button? What you ( do ) if you saw a ghost ?
A: 'Are you coming to town with me this afternoon? ' B: 'Perhaps. If I /finish/ decorating/ the living room, I /come/ with you. ' 'I don't have any money. If I /have/ some money, I /buy/ you lunch. ' 'I always go on holiday to Italy. If the weather in Scotland /be/ better, I /go/ there. ' A: 'I've got so much work to do!' B: 'I'm sorry. I have a lot of work, too. If I /have/ more time, I /help/ you. 'I'm a teacher. If I /be/ the Minister for Education, I /spend/ more money on schools and students. ' A: 'I've lost my address book. ' B: 'If I /find/ it, I /bring/ it to you. ' 'I have a fever. If I /feel/ better tomorrow, I /go/ back to school. '
A B C you go to work in the morning? you see her. when he gets the job? if my guests arrive. I'd buy a new house I'll clean up the house I'll call you If you want the ticket, you should phone theatre What will he do I'm watching TV now, but I promise I'll help you You'll recognize her Do you have breakfast before as soon as I won the lottery. dinner is ready. the ticket office opens. this programme finishes.