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CONCEPT OF HUMAN VALUES
CONCEPT OF VALUE � Initially used in economics- Measure of Benefit. � Anything that satisfies a human need becomes a thing of value. � Social approval was lacking. � So modified to: Anything which is socially desired and leads to satisfaction of human need becomes a thing of value. � So, two components: ◦ Satisfaction ◦ Desirability � Philosophers defined it as “beliefs shared by the members of a culture regarding what is good or bad, acceptable or non acceptable. Values govern human behavior or action. ”
Indian Philosophy � “Purushartha” are the values which human beings should seek. These are (in hierarchical order): Secular (present in ◦ ◦ all cultures) and Artha: Economic value or wealth lower category Kama: Pleasure values. Dharma: Righteousness and morality Moksha (Param Purushartha) : Spiritual freedom and self perfection. Liberation from the web of Maya or freedom from cycle of birth and death. In absence of Dharma, Artha and Kama are not good. Dharma in progression leads to Moksha.
Western Philosophy � Universal ◦ ◦ values: Truth Beauty Goodness Self realization (Highest Value)
Definition of values � “Value is defined as a set of principles whereby conduct is directed and regulated as a guide for individuals and a social group. ” International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (1972)
Types of values � Instrumental values Vs. Intrinsic Values ◦ Instrumental values: Lead to achievement ultimate goal of life. E. g. Artha and Dharma. of ◦ Intrinsic Values: End in itself. Instrumental values lead to achievement of intrinsic values. E. g. Artha leads to Kama and Dharma leads to Moksha
Types of Values � Indian ◦ ◦ traditional value classification Artha Kama Dharma Moksha
Types of Values � Values according to constitution of India “WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens: JUSTICE, social, economic and political; LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; EQUALITY of status and opportunity; And to promote among them all FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation; IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION. ”
Types of Values � According to Constitution ◦ Democratic Values: Freedom of thought, expression and belief; equality and dignity of individuals, ensuring justice. ◦ Socialistic Values: Equality of status and opportunity, equitable distribution of wealth. ◦ Secular Values: Respect for all religions, freedom of faith and worship.
Types of Values � Modern classification of values: ◦ Primary values or Organic Values: Basic values, self nourishment. E. g. good food, drink and clothes. ◦ Pleasure values of Hedonistic values: Desire for pleasure and avoiding pains. ◦ Aesthetic Values: Recognizing beauty of nature and appreciating things which give joy of beauty. E. g. Fine arts, dance, music, poetry etc. ◦ Economic values: Desire for money and materialism. ◦ Personal values: Values a person desire for his own. E. g. possession recreation, quest etc. ◦ Family values: Traditional values including faith, occupation, characteristics of caste and behavior in accordance to the family status.
Types of Values ◦ Social values: Desired together by a social group. ◦ Power values: Desire of an individual to rule over others or lead others. ◦ Intellectual values: Love for knowledge, zest to discover and inclination toward truth. ◦ Religious values: One’s faith in God, offering prayers, charity and obeying ethical codes of a religion. ◦ Moral values: What is socially right or wrong. Dharma talks about this. Moral values of Indian culture are depicted in: �Satyam, Shivam, Sundaram �Vasudhev Kutumbakam ◦ Spiritual values: Ultimate value of human life. For this one need to get detached. It inspire us and makes us free from all selfish actions.
Traditional Vs Modern Values Traditional value Corresponding Modern Values Artha Economic Values Kama Primary or Organic Values Hedonic or Pleasure Values Aesthetic Values Recreational Values Dharma Moral Values Personal Values Social Values Intellectual Values Moksha Spiritual Values Comparison done by Kar (1996)
Types of Values � Gawande classification of values ◦ Human values: Core values and all other are built around these values. ◦ National or Constitutional values ◦ Social values: E. g. values of Indian culture are respect and love for others, brotherhood, self sacrifice and self realization. ◦ Vocational or professional values ◦ Religious values ◦ Aesthetic values
Concept of Human Values � Universal in nature � Shared by all human beings irrespective of their culture, religion or nationality � What we expect from others and what we aim to give to others � Human values are unique to every individual � Everyone does not give equal importance to all elements of life � Related to human behavior � These are developed through socialization, individual experiences and identification with significant others.
Definition � Human values are conceptions of the ‘desirable’ within every individual and society. They serve as standards or criteria to guide not only action but also judgment, choice, attitude, evaluation, argument, rationalization and attribution of causality (Cause and effect relations). ” M. Rokeach (Social Psychologist)
Composition of Human Values � Dr. Gawande (1994) found seven human values: ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Truthfulness Constructivity (positive or good purpose) Sacrifice Sincerity Self control Altruism (well being and happiness for all) Scientific vision
Composition of Human Values � NCERT (National Council for Educational Research and Training): Suggested 84 human values.
1. Abstinence 2. Appreciation of cultural values of others 31. Honesty 32. Helpfulness 61. Self-help 62. Self –respect 3. Anti-untouchability 4. Citizenship 5. Consideration for others 33. Humanism 34. Hygienic living 35. Initiative 63. Self confidence 64. Self support 65. Self study 6. Concern for others 7. Co-operation 8. Cleanliness 9. Compassion 36. Integrity 37. Justice 38. Kindness 39. Kindness to animals 66. Self reliance 67. Self control 68. Self restraint 69. Social service 10. Common cause 40. Loyalty to duty 70. solidarity of mankind 11. Common good 41. Leadership 71. Sense of social responsibility 12. Courage 42. National unity 72. Sense of discrimination between good and bad 13. Courtesy 43. National consciousness 73. Socialism 14. Curiosity 15. Democratic decision making 44. Non-violence 45. National integration 74. Sympathy 75. Secularism and respect for all religions 16. Devotion 17. Dignity of the individual 46. Obedience 47. Peace 76. Simple Living 77. Spirit of enquiry 18. Dignity of manual work 48. Proper utilization of time 78. Team work 19. Duty 20. Discipline 21. Endurance 22. Equality 49. Punctuality 50. Patriotism 51. Purity 52. Quest for knowledge 79. Team Spirit 80. Truthfulness 81. Tolerance 82. Universal truth 23. Friendship 24. Faithfulness 53. Resourcefulness 54. Regularity 83. Universal love 84. Value for national and civic property 25. Fellow-feeling 55. Respect for others 26. Freedom 56. Reverence for old age
Composition of Human values � Schwartz values: (1994) identified 10 universal human ◦ Achievement ◦ Benevolence (honesty, loyalty, helpfulness, welfare of people) ◦ Conformity ◦ Hedonism (enjoying life, pleasure for oneself) ◦ Power ◦ Security ◦ Self direction ◦ Stimulation (excitement and adventure in life, accepting challenges, variety and novelty in life) ◦ Tradition (customs and traditions of religion, devotion and self control) ◦ Universalism ( understanding and protecting all people and nature, broad mindedness, equality, peace, justice, harmony and unity at world level)
� Conflict and similarity between these 10 values has summarized these into two dimensions: ◦ Self Enhancement Vs Self Transcendence �Achievement and power comes under self enhancement (self interest) �Universalism and benevolence comes under self transcendence (social welfare) ◦ Openness to Change Vs Conservation �Self direction and stimulations comes under openness to change (independent thinking, readiness for change) �Conformity, tradition and security comes under conservation (order, self control and resistance to change) * Hedonism has characteristics of both self enhancement and openness to change.
Human Behavior � We can say a human behavior as per human values, if that behavior is having following characteristics: ◦ ◦ Expected behavior Responsible for individual progress Conducive to society and nation Accepted at international level