COMS 106 Basic Concepts in Sociology Lecture Two

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COMS 106 Basic Concepts in Sociology Lecture Two – Origin and Development of Sociology

COMS 106 Basic Concepts in Sociology Lecture Two – Origin and Development of Sociology Lecturer: Dr. Samson Obed Appiah, Dept. of Sociology Contact Information: [email protected] edu. gh College of Education School of Continuing and Distance Education 2014/2015 – 2016/2017

Lecture Overview • Sociology as a scientific study did not originate out of a

Lecture Overview • Sociology as a scientific study did not originate out of a vacuum; • There were historical and social forces or factors which influenced the emergence and development of sociology; • This lecture seeks to introduce students to the social and/or historical context in which sociology developed within Europe particularly France, Germany and Britain. Slide 2

Lecture Objectives q Objective of Session: At the end of the lecture, the student

Lecture Objectives q Objective of Session: At the end of the lecture, the student will be able to: • Understand the social conditions in Europe before the 18 th and 19 th century; • Identify the historical and social factors which influenced the origin of sociology; • Understand how the social forces particularly influenced the development of sociology Slide 3

Europe before the 18 th and 19 th Century • Sociology as an academic

Europe before the 18 th and 19 th Century • Sociology as an academic discipline developed within Europe particularly France, Germany and Britain; • As a result, the political, economic and religious conditions within these European societies influences the origins of sociology; • Politically, European societies were monarchies ruled by kings who were considered divine and could not be challenged; • Economically, they were agricultural people with little or no division of labour; Slide 4

Europe before the 18 th and 19 th Century Cont. • Religiously, they were

Europe before the 18 th and 19 th Century Cont. • Religiously, they were conservative, illiterate and superstitious living in traditional communities; • However, by the beginning of the 19 th century, Europeans begun to develop new ideas; • This is beginning of the period of Renaissance about their societies and social life and begun questioning the political, economic and religious structures of society; • This led to the following factors below as Slide 5

Social and Historical Factors influencing the Development and Origin of Sociology • All intellectual

Social and Historical Factors influencing the Development and Origin of Sociology • All intellectual fields just as Sociology are profoundly shaped by their social setting and outdoor by a set of events; • The social and historical settings out of which Sociology emerged were: Ø 1. Renaissance; Ø 2. Reformation; Ø 3. French Revolution; Ø 4. Industrial Revolution and; Ø 5. The Intellectual Forces or the Enlightenment. Slide 6

1. Renaissance • The Renaissance also known as the “Rebirth of Knowledge” lead to

1. Renaissance • The Renaissance also known as the “Rebirth of Knowledge” lead to the expansion of learning, arts, culture; • It refers to the rediscovery by scholars called “humanists” of the writings of the ancient Greek and Romans; • It is a period within which the spirit of scholarship which was liberated repudiated “realism” in though and favored a more genuine respect for facts; • For the first time more realistic views were Slide 7 idealistic picture expressed overshadowing the

2. Reformation/Religious Revolution • One of the greatest of all revolutions is the Religious

2. Reformation/Religious Revolution • One of the greatest of all revolutions is the Religious revolution which occurred in the 16 th century; • It separated the Christians of Western Europe into Protestants and Catholics; • By the start of the 16 th century, Western Europe had only one religion, the Roman Catholic; • However disputes and lax practices had grown up within the church; • Some criticized the administration of the church and even doubted some of its Slide 8

2. Reformation Cont. • For example the church insisted that it alone had the

2. Reformation Cont. • For example the church insisted that it alone had the authority to interpret the meaning of the bible for the people; • However, John Wyciffe an English priest and a teacher at Oxford University, declared that people had the right to read the Bible and interpret it; • Despite protests by the Church, followers of Wycliffe translated the bible from Latin into English; • The work of Wycliffe influenced Martin Luther who became the German leader of the Reformation. Slide 9

2. Reformation Cont. • Luther protested that some clergy were selling indulgences (temporal pardon

2. Reformation Cont. • Luther protested that some clergy were selling indulgences (temporal pardon of sins) without making clear that the people must also be repentant for sins; • He developed new ideas opposing the church by writing the 95 theses against indulgences; • Martin Luther called for rejection of five sacraments out of the seven as he favored baptism and the Lord’s supper; as celibacy of the clergy was rejected; • He was excommunicated from the church leading to division and chaos in society. Slide 10

3. The Political or French Revolution • Before the revolution, France like other European

3. The Political or French Revolution • Before the revolution, France like other European societies were monarchies ruled by kings and a class-based society; • There was very little liberties for the individual and there was nothing like democracy; • The Upper class made up of the King and the nobles paid no tax but the poor did; • New ideas by Voltaire and Rousseau was that: Ø All men had natural and equal rights and also Slide 11

3. The Political or French Revolution Cont. • As a result of new ideas,

3. The Political or French Revolution Cont. • As a result of new ideas, some people questioned the divine right of the monarchy and there was a revolution in France; • The revolution resulted in the violent overthrow and killing of the French King as many people were killed; • The revolution was also positive as it brought about the end to the monarchy and class system leading to democracy; • However, the revolution also brought about negative consequences to the French society. Slide 12

3. The Political or French Revolution Cont. • The negative effects of the revolution

3. The Political or French Revolution Cont. • The negative effects of the revolution were that it created disrespect for authority, social anarchy, disorder and disintegration of society; • It was these negative effects that influenced the emergence of sociology as some social philosophers were concerned about the chaos and anarchy in society; • Their desire and interest in re-creating orderly and well-integrated societies led to the development of societies (Founding fathers like Auguste Comte). Slide 13

4. The Industrial Revolution • The industrial revolution (1750 -1850) resulted in the transformation

4. The Industrial Revolution • The industrial revolution (1750 -1850) resulted in the transformation of western world from a largely agricultural to an industrial system; • As a result, the labour force that had hitherto worked on the farms left for industrial factories; • The industrial revolution influenced the lives of people in many ways: migration to search for factory work; • The revolution brought about a new Slide 14

4. The Industrial Revolution Cont. • This brought about industrialization and urbanization and many

4. The Industrial Revolution Cont. • This brought about industrialization and urbanization and many social problems; • Problems such as unemployment, overcrowding, lack of accommodation, social isolation, creation of slumps among others; • Social thinkers and early sociologist were concerned about these problems; • Their attempts to find solutions to these problems by studying them led to the emergence of sociology; Slide 15

5. Enlightenment Period • In France, the Enlightenment is often termed the Age of

5. Enlightenment Period • In France, the Enlightenment is often termed the Age of Reason because this was when the hold of religion, tradition and superstition were finally broken • During this period, a number of longstanding ideas and beliefs about social life were overthrown and replaced with rational and empirical observation • Social philosophers believed in using knowledge and reasoning to create a good society. Slide 16

5. The Enlightenment Cont. • It was these enlightenment ideas that brought about the

5. The Enlightenment Cont. • It was these enlightenment ideas that brought about the changes in the political, economic and religious lives of European societies. • In an attempt to understand the political, economic and religious changes in Europe at the time, and provide solutions to them; • The French social philosopher Auguste Comte proposed that society should be studied scientifically through a new discipline called sociology. Slide 17

Intellectual Responses • In a bid to understand the political and economic changes taking

Intellectual Responses • In a bid to understand the political and economic changes taking place in Europe (particularly France, Britain & Germany) at the time; • And offer solutions to the emerging problems of industrial society the French Social Philosopher; • Auguste Comte proposed that there should be a new discipline of society called Sociology; • It’s main mission is to study society scientifically and to make prescription for the betterment of society; • Thus, the foundations of sociology were laid in the context of 18 th and 19 th centuries Europe. Slide 18

Sample Question • Before we leave consider this question: • “In not more than

Sample Question • Before we leave consider this question: • “In not more than two pages outline the conditions in Europe during the 18 th and the 19 th centuries that contributed to the development of sociology” • We’ll meet next week same time Slide 19

Reading List/References • Hughes, M. , Kroehler, C. J. (2005). Sociology: The Core (7

Reading List/References • Hughes, M. , Kroehler, C. J. (2005). Sociology: The Core (7 th Edition). Boston: Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. (Chapter 1, Pages 6 -10) • Henslin, J. M. (2007). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Pearson Custom Publishing. (Chapter one, Pages 5 -6) • Robertson, Ian (1987). Sociology. New York: Worth Publications (Chapter one Pages…) Slide 20