Computer Confluence 7e 2006 PrenticeHall Inc 1 Computer

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Computer Confluence 7/e © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1

Computer Confluence 7/e © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Hardware Basics: Peripherals © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 2

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Hardware Basics: Peripherals © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 2

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Objectives üInput devices and their roles in getting different

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Objectives üInput devices and their roles in getting different types of information into the computer üOutput devices and the ways they make computers more useful üThe functionality of different types of storage devices üThe ways the components of a computer system fit together © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 3

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Input: From Person to Processor Keyboard üThe most familiar

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Input: From Person to Processor Keyboard üThe most familiar input device üUsed to enter letters, numbers and special characters © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 4

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Input: From Person to Processor ü Standard keyboard ü

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Input: From Person to Processor ü Standard keyboard ü Ergonomic keyboards Ø To address possible medical problems ü Wireless keyboard ü Folding keyboards Ø Used with palm-sized computers ü One-handed keyboards ü Keyboards printed on membranes © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 5

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Input: From Person to Processor Pointing Devices ü Mouse

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Input: From Person to Processor Pointing Devices ü Mouse üTouchpad üPointing stick üTrackball üJoystick üGraphics tablet üTouch screen ØStylus © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 6

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Input: From Person to Processor Reading Tools üReads marks

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Input: From Person to Processor Reading Tools üReads marks representing codes specifically designed for computer input © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 7

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Input: From Person to Processor ØOptical-mark readers ØMagnetic-ink character

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Input: From Person to Processor ØOptical-mark readers ØMagnetic-ink character readers ØBar-code readers ØPen scanners ØTablet PC ØSmart whiteboard ØRadio Frequency Identification Readers © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 8

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Input: From Person to Processor Digitizing the Real World

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Input: From Person to Processor Digitizing the Real World üScanners capture and digitize printed images ØFlatbed ØSlide ØDrum ØSheet-fed © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 9

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Input: From Person to Processor üDigital camera ØSnapshots captured

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Input: From Person to Processor üDigital camera ØSnapshots captured as digital images ØDigital images stored as bit patterns on disks or other digital storage media © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 10

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Input: From Person to Processor üVideo digitizer Ø Capture

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Input: From Person to Processor üVideo digitizer Ø Capture input from a: q. Video camera q. Video cassette recorder or television Ø Convert it to a digital signal q. Stored in memory and displayed on computer screens üVideoconferencing Ø People in diverse locations can see and hear each other ØUsed to conduct long-distance meetings Ø Video images transmitted through networks © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 11

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Input: From Person to Processor üAudio digitizers ØDigitize sounds

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Input: From Person to Processor üAudio digitizers ØDigitize sounds from q Microphones q Other input devices ØDigital signals can be q Stored q Further processed with specialized software q A digital signal processing chip compresses the stream of bits before it is transmitted to the CPU © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 12

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Input: From Person to Processor üSpeech recognition software Ø

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Input: From Person to Processor üSpeech recognition software Ø Converts voice data into words that can be edited and printed © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 13

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Input: From Person to Processor üSensors ØDesigned to monitor

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Input: From Person to Processor üSensors ØDesigned to monitor physical conditions q Temperature, humidity, pressure ØProvide data used in: q Robotics q Environmental climate control q Weather forecasting q Medical monitoring q Biofeedback q Scientific research © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 14

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Output: From Pulses to People Screen Output ü A

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Output: From Pulses to People Screen Output ü A monitor or video display terminal (VDT) displays characters, graphics, photographic images, animation and video Ø Video adapter—connects the monitor to the computer Ø VRAM or video memory—a special portion of RAM to hold video images Øthe more video memory, the more picture detail is displayed © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 15

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Output: From Pulses to People üMonitor size: Measured as

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Output: From Pulses to People üMonitor size: Measured as a diagonal line across the screen üResolution: The number of pixels displayed on the screen üPixels (or picture elements): tiny dots that compose a picture ØThe higher the resolution, the closer together the dots üImage quality is affected by resolution and color depth (or bit depth) ØColor depth refers to the number of different colors a monitor displays at one time © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 16

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Output: From Pulses to People üMonitor classes Ø CRTs

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Output: From Pulses to People üMonitor classes Ø CRTs (cathode-ray tubes) Ø LCDs (liquid crystal displays) are now more popular q Overhead projection panels q Video projectors q Portable computers © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 18

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Output: From Pulses to People Paper Output üPrinters produce

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Output: From Pulses to People Paper Output üPrinters produce paper output or hard copy üTwo basic groups of printers: ØImpact printers q. Line printers q. Dot-matrix printers © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 19

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Output: From Pulses to People ØNon-impact printers q. Laser

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Output: From Pulses to People ØNon-impact printers q. Laser printers §Laser beam reflected off a rotating drum to create patterns of electrical charges §Faster and more expensive than dot matrix printer §High-resolution output q. Inkjet printers §Sprays ink onto paper to produce printed text and graphic images §Prints fewer pages/minute than laser printer §High-quality color costing less than laser printer © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 20

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Output: From Pulses to People üMultifunction printer or MFP

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Output: From Pulses to People üMultifunction printer or MFP combines a scanner, printer and a fax modem üPlotter: can produce large, finely scaled engineering blueprints and maps © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 21

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Output: From Pulses to People Fax Machines and Fax

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Output: From Pulses to People Fax Machines and Fax Modems üFacsimile (fax) machine ØSending: Øfax machine scans each page as an image, Øconverts the image into a series of electronic pulses, Øsends those signals over phone lines to another fax. ØReceiving: Øfax machine uses the signals to reconstruct the image and Øprint black-and-white facsimiles or copies of the originals üFax modem: üdirectly from PC to fax machine via modem & phone line © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 22

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Output: From Pulses to People Output You Can Hear

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Output: From Pulses to People Output You Can Hear üSound card Ø Enables the PC to: ØAccept microphone input ØPlay music and other sound through speakers or headphones ØProcess sound in a variety of ways üSynthesizers ØUsed to produce music, noise © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 23

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Output: From Pulses to People Controlling Other Machines üOutput

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Output: From Pulses to People Controlling Other Machines üOutput devices take bit patterns and turn them into non-digital movements ØRobot arms ØTelephone switchboards ØTransportation devices ØAutomated factory equipment ØSpacecraft ØForce feedback joystick © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 24

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Output: From Pulses to People Rules of Thumb: Ergonomics

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Output: From Pulses to People Rules of Thumb: Ergonomics and Health üChoose equipment that’s ergonomically designed üCreate a healthy workspace üBuild flexibility into your work environment üRest your eyes üStretch to loosen tight muscles üListen to your body üSeek help when you need it © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 25

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Storage Devices: Input Meets Output Magnetic Tape üCan store

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Storage Devices: Input Meets Output Magnetic Tape üCan store large amounts of information in a small space at a relatively low cost üLimitation: sequential data access üUsed mainly for backup purposes © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 26

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Storage Devices: Input Meets Output Magnetic Disks üRandom data

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Storage Devices: Input Meets Output Magnetic Disks üRandom data access üFloppy disks ØProvide inexpensive, portable storage üHard disks ØNon-removable, rigid disks that spin continuously and rapidly ØProvide much faster access than a floppy disk üRemovable media (Zip & Jaz disks) ØProvide high-capacity portable storage © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 27

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Storage Devices: Input Meets Output Optical Disks üUse laser

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Storage Devices: Input Meets Output Optical Disks üUse laser beams to read and write bits of information on the disk surface ØNot as fast as magnetic hard disks ØMassive storage capacity ØVery reliable © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 28

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Storage Devices: Input Meets Output ü CD-ROM Ø Optical

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Storage Devices: Input Meets Output ü CD-ROM Ø Optical drives that read CD-ROMs ü CD-R Ø WORM media (write-once, read many) ü CD-RW Ø Can read CD-ROMs and write, erase and rewrite data onto CD-R & CD-RW disks © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 29

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Storage Devices: Input Meets Output üDVD (Digital Versatile Disks)

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Storage Devices: Input Meets Output üDVD (Digital Versatile Disks) ØStore & distribute all kinds of data ØHold between 3. 8 and 17 gigabytes of information üDVD-ROM drives ØCan play DVD movies, read DVD data disks, read standard CD-ROMs, and play audio CDs ØBecause they’re read-only, they can’t record data, music, or movies ØDVD-RAM drives ØCan read, erase, and write data (but not DVD video) on multi-gigabyte DVD-R (but not CD-R or CD-RW) media © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 30

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Storage Devices: Input Meets Output Solid-State Storage Devices üFlash

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Storage Devices: Input Meets Output Solid-State Storage Devices üFlash memory is an erasable memory chip ØSizes range from 16 MB to 1 GB ØCompact alternative to disk storage ØContains no moving parts ØDesigned for specific applications such as storing pictures in digital cameras ØLikely to replace disk and tape storage © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 31

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Computer Systems: The Sum of Its Parts Personal Computers:

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Computer Systems: The Sum of Its Parts Personal Computers: basic design classes üTower systems ØTall, narrow boxes that generally have more expansion slots and bays than other designs üFlat desktop systems ØDesigned to sit under the monitor like a platform üAll-in-one systems (like the i. Mac) ØCombine monitor and system unit into a single housing © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 32

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Computer Systems: The Sum of Its Parts üPortable computers

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Computer Systems: The Sum of Its Parts üPortable computers ØInclude all the essential components, including keyboard and pointing device, in one compact box © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 33

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Computer Systems: The Sum of Its Parts Ports and

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Computer Systems: The Sum of Its Parts Ports and Slots Revisited üThe system or motherboard includes several standard ports: ØSerial Port for attaching devices that send/receive messages one bit at a time (modems) ØParallel Port for attaching devices that send/receive bits in groups (printers) ØKeyboard/Mouse Port for attaching a keyboard and a mouse © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 34

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Computer Systems: The Sum of Its Parts üOther ports

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Computer Systems: The Sum of Its Parts üOther ports are typically included on expansion boards rather than the system board: ØVideo Port used to plug in a color monitor into the video board ØMicrophone, speaker, headphone, MIDI ports used to attach sound equipment ØSCSI port allows several peripherals to be strung together and attached to a single port ØLAN port used faster connection to a local-area network (LAN) © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 35

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Computer Systems: The Sum of Its Parts Expansion Made

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Computer Systems: The Sum of Its Parts Expansion Made Easy üWith the PC open architecture and the introduction of new interfaces, you can hot swap devices. ØUSB (Universal Serial Bus) transmits a hundred times faster than a PC serial port ØFirewire (IEEE 1394) can move data between devices at 400 or more megabits per second q. High speed makes it ideal for data-intensive work like digital video ØFire. Wire 800 q. Recently introduced on high-end Macintosh systems offers 800 Mbps transfer speeds © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 36

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Computer Systems: The Sum of Its Parts Putting It

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Computer Systems: The Sum of Its Parts Putting It All Together üA typical computer system might have several different input, output, and storage peripherals -- the key is compatibility üNetworks blur the boundaries between computers üNetworked computers may have access to all the peripherals on a system üThe computer is, in effect, just a tiny part of a global system of interconnected networks © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 37

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Inventing the Future: Tomorrow’s Peripherals ü Tomorrow’s Storage Ø

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Inventing the Future: Tomorrow’s Peripherals ü Tomorrow’s Storage Ø Smaller disks that hold more q ü a single-electron memory chip the size of a thumbnail that can store all the sounds and images of a full-length feature film Tomorrow’s Output Ø Flat-panel screens are replacing desktop CRTs at an ever-increasing rate Ø Retinal display that works without a screen © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. You can count how many seeds are in the apple, but not how many apples are in the seed. —Ken Kesey, author of One Flew over the Cuckoo’s Nest 38

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Inventing the Future: Tomorrow’s Peripherals ü Tomorrow’s Input: Sensors

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Inventing the Future: Tomorrow’s Peripherals ü Tomorrow’s Input: Sensors Ø More sophisticated devices will serve as eyes, ears, and other types of sense organs for computer networks © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 39

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Lesson Summary ü Peripherals allow computer to communicate with

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Lesson Summary ü Peripherals allow computer to communicate with the outside world and store information for later use information ü The most common input devices today are the keyboard and the mouse Ø A variety of other input devices can be connected to the computer © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. A computer terminal is not some clunky old television with a typewriter in front of it. It is an interface where the mind and body can connect with the universe and move bits of it about. —Douglas Adams, author of The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy 40

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Lesson Summary ü ü Output devices perform the opposite

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Lesson Summary ü ü Output devices perform the opposite function: They accept strings of bits from the computer and transform them into a form that is useful or meaningful outside the computer Storage devices are capable of two-way communication with the computer: Because of their high-speed random access capability are the most common forms of storage on modern computers © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 41

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Lesson Summary ü Network connections make it possible for

Computer Confluence 7/e Chapter 3 Lesson Summary ü Network connections make it possible for computers to communicate with one another directly As a rule, men worry more about what they can’t see than about what they can. —Julius Caesar © 2006 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 42