Input and Output Devices Input Devices are hardware that is used to put information into the computer. (You give information and instructions to the computer) Output devices are hardware that is used to take information out of the computer. (Computer gives information to you)
Camera Input Devices Keyboard Mouse Joystick Scanner Microphone Drawing Pen
Output Devices Printer Monitor Headphones Speakers Projector
Inside a Computer Motherboard The motherboard is the computer's main circuit board. It's a thin plate that holds the CPU, memory, connectors for the hard drive and optical drives, expansion cards to control the video and audio, and connections to your computer's ports (such as USB ports). The motherboard connects directly or indirectly to every part of the computer.
Inside a Computer CPU – Central Processing Unit The central processing unit (CPU), also called a processor, is located inside the computer case on the motherboard. It is sometimes called the brain of the computer, and its job is to carry out commands. Whenever you press a key, click the mouse, or start an application, you're sending instructions to the CPU. A processor's speed is measured in megahertz (MHz), or millions of instructions per second; and gigahertz (GHz), or billions of instructions per second. A faster processor can execute instructions more quickly. However, the actual speed of the computer depends on the speed of many different components—not just the processor.
Inside A Computer RAM – Random Access Memory RAM is your system's short-term memory. Whenever your computer performs calculations, it temporarily stores the data in the RAM until it is needed. This short-term memory disappears when the computer is turned off. If you're working on a document, spreadsheet, or other type of file, you'll need to save it to avoid losing it. When you save a file, the data is written to the hard drive, which acts as long-term storage. RAM is measured in megabytes (MB) or gigabytes (GB). The more RAM you have, the more things your computer can do at the same time. If you don't have enough RAM, you may notice that your computer is sluggish when you have several programs open.
Inside a Computer Hard Drive The hard drive is where your software, documents, and other files are stored. The hard drive is long-term storage, which means the data is still saved even if you turn the computer off or unplug it. Information is stored on magnetic cylinders When you run a program or open a file, the computer copies some of the data from the hard drive onto the RAM. When you save a file, the data is copied back to the hard drive. The faster the hard drive, the faster your computer can start up and load programs.
Inside A Computer Power The Supply power supply unit in a computer converts the power from the wall outlet to the type of power needed by the computer. It sends power through cables to the motherboard and other components.
Inside A Computer Video Card The video card is responsible for what you see on the monitor. Most computers have a GPU (graphics processing unit) built into the motherboard instead of having a separate video card. If you like playing graphics-intensive games, you can add a faster video card to one of the expansion slots to get better performance.
Inside A Computer Network Card The network card allows your computer to communicate over a network and access the Internet. It can either connect with an Ethernet cable or through a wireless connection (often called Wi-Fi). Many motherboards have built-in network connections, and a network card can also be added to an expansion slot. Allows computers to communicate with each other
Inside A Computer BIOS – Basic Input/Output System Wakes up the computer and reminds it what to do.
Storage Internal Storage The purpose of storage in a computer is to hold information or data. Primary memory is stored on chips located on the motherboard. Secondary memory is stored on the hard drive. External Storage A Flash Drive can hold information greater than a CD or DVD. A CD usually holds up to 650 to 700 MB. A DVD holds even more information at least 7 GB.
Software Word processing software allows users to create and manipulate documents that contain text and graphics. With word processing software, you can insert clip art into a document Spreadsheet software, data is organized in rows and columns, which collectively are called a worksheet. It performs calculations on the data and displays the result. Database software allows you to create and manage a database. A database is a collection of data organized to allow access, retrieval, and use of that data. Desktop publishing (DTP) software is used to design and produce sophisticated documents. DTP is developed specifically to support page layout, which is the process of arranging text and graphics in a document. Entertainment software includes interactive games, videos, and other programs designed to support a hobby or provide amusement. Research Software is software used to find information on several topics. This can be encyclopedia software, Manuals, or Textbooks.
Programs A Program is a set of instructions that tells the computer how to perform a specific task. Programs are like translators that allow people to work with computers without learning the computer’s language. Using bits and bytes in different combinations to represent a code is known as Programming. Copying a program onto your computer’s hard drive from another source is known as Installing the program. People who write codes to create programs are known as computer programmers Some programs can be downloaded from the internet directly to your hard drive
Operating Systems The large program that controls how the CPU communicates with other hardware components is the Operating System. A computer that is easy to operate is called user friendly. Windows is the most common operating system for PCs. Operating systems are constantly being updated as technology advances. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) uses graphics to help the user navigate within the computer system.
Windows Desktop You put things in the recycle bin that you no longer need or want. A GUI uses graphics or pictures to help the user navigate and access programs. The Start Menu and clock are found on the task bar. An icon is a small picture that links to a file or program. At the top of each window, the title bar contains the title and buttons to close, minimize and resize. Moving the scroll bar up or down allows you to see all of the information in a window. Programs and applications run inside windows that can be opened, closed or resized. The wallpaper is like a backdrop on your desktop that can be changed. Found below the menu bar in some windows, the tool bar contains icons or options that allow you to perform specific tasks. The find. contains basic operations such as run, shut down, log off and