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Complex Sentence Definition Independent Clause An independent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb, expresses a complete thought, and can stand alone as a sentence. Dependent Clause A dependent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb, does not express a complete thought, and cannot stand alone as a sentence. Complex Sentence A complex sentence is a sentence that contains one independent clause and at least one dependent clause. Subordinate Clause A dependent clause that begins with a subordinating conjunction. Since subordinate clauses are adverbial, they may appear at the beginning or end of a complex sentence.
Table of Subordinating Conjunctions Meaning or Function Subordinate Conjunctions Time After, As soon as, Before, Once, Since, Until, When, While Manner As, As if, As though, Like Cause and Effect Although, Though, Whereas, While, Except, That Condition Because, In that, Now that, Since, So that, If, In case, Provided (that), Unless Purpose So that, In order that Comparison As…as, More than, Less than, Than. �(Source: Klammer, Thomas P. , Shultz, Muriel R. , Della Volpe, Angela. Analyzing English Grammar. Pearson Education, 2007. )
Exercise Find out the subordinate clause 1. John tried hard to finish his work, though it seemed an impossible task. 2. I will pay you back as soon as I get the money. 3. Until I started going to class regularly, I performed poorly on the weekly quizzes. 4. Even though she had a ten-page paper to write, Mary went to the movies with friends. 5. Before he was a famous writer, John Steinbeck was a maintenance man. 6. After she graduates this year, Julie will work in her father’s law firm.
Punctuating Complex Sentences with Subordinating Conjunctions If a subordinate clause appears at the beginning of a complex sentence, it must be separated from the independent clause by a comma. Example: After she finished her homework, Monica went shopping. In general, if a subordinate clause appears after the independent clause in a compound sentence, no comma is needed. Example: Monica went shopping after she finished her homework.
Noun clause derived from statement A noun clause does the work of a noun. It answers question Who? or What? . He told me his success. (told me about what? ): His success Noun Phrase. He told me that he had succeeded. (…what): that he had succeeded Noun Clause. Introducing noun clause statements with That after: Some adjectives : It’s obvious that he’s going to be late. Some nouns : It’s a pity that he’s going to be late. Some verbs : I know that he’s going to be late. Using a noun after “reporting verbs” like say, tell (me), think, know. We can omit that. Instead of: I know that he’s going to be late. We can say: I know he’s going to be late.
Complete these sentences with noun clause �He feels angry. It’s not surprising (that) he feels angry. �You don’t trust me. It’s annoying. . . �She’s upset. I’m sorry … �He didn’t get the contract. He told me… �she’s been a fool. She agrees …
Noun clause derived from question • Yes-no question Has he signed the contract? yes/no question We can change is as a noun clause after if/whether. Use reporting verbs like ask, tell me, want to know. Example: Tell me if he has signed the contract. Ask him whether he has signed it. • Question-word question When did you sign the contract? word question. We can change is as a noun clause after tell me, I want to know. The word order changes back to Subject + Verb and we don’t use a question mark. Example: Tell me when you signed the contract. (not *Tell me when did you sign the contract*)
Complex Sentence with Relative Pronouns Relative Pronoun Refer to Who people That people Which Animals, things Whom People Whose Possessive adjective, people, thing, animal Examples: • He is the man who/that lives here. • That ‘s the cat which/that lives next door. • Here are some photos which/that show my car. • He is the man whom I met. * He is the man whom I met him.
Join these sentences using who, whom or which �He’s the accountant. He does my account. �She’s the nurse. She looked after me. �They are secretaries. They work in our office. �That’s magazine. It arrived this morning �They’re the postcards. I sent them from Spain. �They are the workmen. I paid them for the job. �They are the birds. I fed them this morning.
Whom/which as object preposition The position of preposition in relative clauses is very important. ØHe is the person to whom I wrote. (never *to who) (very formal). ØThis is the pan in which I boiled the milk. (very formal) ØHe is the person whom I wrote to. This is the pan which I boiled the milk in. However, we usually prefer to omit the relative and say: ØHe is the person I wrote to. This is the pan I boiled the milk in.
Join each pair of sentence in three different ways Ø He’s the man. I sent the money to him. He’s the man whom I sent the money to. He’s the man to whom I sent the money He’s the man I sent the money to. Ø She’s the nurse. I gave the flower to her. Ø Tha’s the chair. I sat on it. Ø He’s the boy. I bought this toy for him. . Ø That’s the building. I passed by it.
Complex sentence “whose” Use whose in place of possessive adjectives (my, your, his, etc)/ its or with preposition to refer to people. Example: 1. He’s the man whose car was stolen. 2. That’s the house whose windows were broken. 3. He’s the man whose house the pictures were stolen from.
Complex sentence time, place, manner Time (past reference) when, after, as soon as, before, by the time (that), once, since, until, while. Example: When we visited London, we went tothe Tower. Time (future reference) use simple present after: after, as soon as, before, by the time, directly, immediately, the moment, till/until and when. Example: The owens will move to a new flat when the baby is born. Place where, wherever, anywhere, and everywhere. Example: This is the exact spot where the accident happened. Manner as, (in) the way (that), (in) the same way, as if/as though Example: Type this again in the way I showed you.
Complex Sentence : Reason and Contrast Use/Function Conjuctions Reason Because, as, seeing (that), and since. Contrast Although, considering (that), though, even if, musch as, while, and whereas.
Complex Sentence: Purpose, Result, and Comparison Use/ Fuction Conjuction Purpose Result In order that (so that), to – infinitive, in case So. . (that), such. . (that) Comparison As. . as
Complex Sentence: Present Participle Construction We can sometimes omit who or which + is/are when we use the present progressive. Instead of: The man who is serving at the counter is very helpful. We can say: The man serving at the counter is very helpful. We can sometimes use –ing in place of who or which + simple present: Instead of: This job will suit students who want to work during the holidays. We can say: This job will suit students wanting to worj during the holidays.
Underline the words you can delete and/or change to use –ing �The place which is flying overhead is traveling north. �The candidates who are sitting for this examination are all graduates �The woman who is waiting to see you has applied for a job here. �Customers who complain about the service should see the manager. �there’s a pension scheme for people who work for this company. �There’s someone who is knocking at the door.
Past Participle Construction �Play – Played (Regular Verb) �Build - Built – Built (Irregelar verb) Examples: 1. We can omit who/ which The system used here is very successful. (which is used) 2. The vegetables sold in this shop are grown without chemicals.