Competition Graphs of Semiorders Fred Roberts Rutgers University

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Competition Graphs of Semiorders Fred Roberts, Rutgers University Joint work with Suh-Ryung Kim, Seoul

Competition Graphs of Semiorders Fred Roberts, Rutgers University Joint work with Suh-Ryung Kim, Seoul National 1 University

Happy Birthday Jean-Claude !! 2

Happy Birthday Jean-Claude !! 2

Semiorders The notion of semiorder arose from problems in utility theory and psychophysics involving

Semiorders The notion of semiorder arose from problems in utility theory and psychophysics involving thresholds. V = finite set, R = binary relation on V (V, R) is a semiorder if there is a real-valued function f on V and a real number > 0 so that for all x, y V, (x, y) R f(x) > f(y) + 3

Jean-Claude Falmagne semiorder: Google: Jean-Claude Falmagne (Chairman). . . . On the Separation of

Jean-Claude Falmagne semiorder: Google: Jean-Claude Falmagne (Chairman). . . . On the Separation of two Relations by a Biorder or Semiorder. . Falmagne, Mathematical Social Sciences, 11(3), 1987, 1 -18. . www. highed. aleks. com/corp/jcfbio-ENGLISH. html - 22 k - Cached - Similar pages [PDF] The Assessment of Knowledge in Theory and in Practice File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - View as HTML. . . Send correspondence to: Jean-Claude Falmagne, Dept. . . We wish to thank Chris Doble, Dina Falmagne, and Lin. . . a ‘weak order’ or perhaps a ‘semiorder’ (in the. . . www. highed. aleks. com/about/Science_Behind_ALEKS. pdf - Similar pages UC Irvine Faculty Jean-Claude Falmagne (949)-824 -4880 [email protected] ss. uci. edu. . of two Relations by a Biorder or Semiorder. . Falmagne, Mathematical Social Sciences, 11(3), 1987, 1 -18. www. socsci. uci. edu/cogsci/ personnel/falmagne. html - 17 k - Cached 4 - Similar pages

Jean-Claude Falmagne and Semiorders • 1987 paper with Doignon and Falmagne on separation of

Jean-Claude Falmagne and Semiorders • 1987 paper with Doignon and Falmagne on separation of two orders by a biorder or semiorder. • Work on biorders goes way back – 1969 paper with Ducamp on composite measurement 5

Jean-Claude Falmagne and Semiorders • 1999 “primer on media theory” ØBeginning: “The family of

Jean-Claude Falmagne and Semiorders • 1999 “primer on media theory” ØBeginning: “The family of all semiorders on a finite set has an interesting property: Any semiorder S can be joined to any other semiorder S' by successively adding or removing pairs of elements, without ever leaving the family. ” ØThis observation underlies models of the evolution of individual preferences under the influence of the flow of information from the media ØExtensive related work with Doignon, Regenwetter, Grofman, Ovchinnikov 6

Jean-Claude Falmagne and Semiorders • A similar idea underlies the notion of well-graded families

Jean-Claude Falmagne and Semiorders • A similar idea underlies the notion of well-graded families of relations (Doignon and Falmagne 1997) • 2001 paper with Doble, Doignon, and Fishburn on “almost connected orders” – based on one of the standard axioms for semiorders (no 3 -point chain is incomparable to a fourth point) • These are just a few examples. 7

Competition Graphs The notion of competition graph arose from a problem of ecology. Key

Competition Graphs The notion of competition graph arose from a problem of ecology. Key idea: Two species compete if they have a common prey. 8

Competition Graphs of Food Webs Let the vertices of a digraph be species in

Competition Graphs of Food Webs Let the vertices of a digraph be species in an ecosystem. Include an arc from x to y if x preys on y. bird fox insect grass deer 9

Competition Graphs of Food Webs Consider a corresponding undirected graph. Vertices = the species

Competition Graphs of Food Webs Consider a corresponding undirected graph. Vertices = the species in the ecosystem Edge between a and b if they have a common prey, i. e. , if there is some x so that there arcs from a to x and b to x. 10

bird fox insect grass deer bird insect fox deer grass

bird fox insect grass deer bird insect fox deer grass

Competition Graphs More generally: Given a digraph D = (V, A). The competition graph

Competition Graphs More generally: Given a digraph D = (V, A). The competition graph C(D) has vertex set V and an edge between a and b if there is an x with (a, x) A and (b, x) A. 12

Competition Graphs: Other Applications: ØCoding ØChannel assignment in communications. ØModeling of complex systems arising

Competition Graphs: Other Applications: ØCoding ØChannel assignment in communications. ØModeling of complex systems arising from study of energy and economic systems ØSpread of opinions/influence. 13

Competition Graphs: Communication Application Digraph D: • Vertices are transmitters and receivers. • Arc

Competition Graphs: Communication Application Digraph D: • Vertices are transmitters and receivers. • Arc x to y if message sent at x can be received at y. Competition graph C(D): • a and b “compete” if there is a receiver x so that messages from a and b can both be received at x. • In this case, the transmitters a and b interfere. 14

Competition Graphs: Influence Application Digraph D: • Vertices are people • Arc x to

Competition Graphs: Influence Application Digraph D: • Vertices are people • Arc x to y if opinion of x influences opinion of y. Competition graph C(D): • a and b “compete” if there is a person x so that opinions from a and b can both influence x. 15

Structure of Competition Graphs In studying competition graphs in ecology, Joel Cohen observed in

Structure of Competition Graphs In studying competition graphs in ecology, Joel Cohen observed in 1968 that the competition graphs of real food webs that he had studied were always interval graphs. Interval graph: Undirected graph. We can assign a real interval to each vertex so that x and y are neighbors in the graph iff their intervals overlap. 16

Interval Graphs c a b d e a b e d c 17

Interval Graphs c a b d e a b e d c 17

Structure of Competition Graphs Cohen asked if competition graphs of food webs are always

Structure of Competition Graphs Cohen asked if competition graphs of food webs are always interval graphs. It is simple to show that purely graphtheoretically, you can get essentially every graph as a competition graph if a food web can be some arbitrary directed graph. It turned out that there are real food webs whose competition graphs are not interval graphs, but typically not for “homogeneous” ecosystems. 18

Structure of Competition Graphs This remarkable empirical observation of Cohen’s has led to a

Structure of Competition Graphs This remarkable empirical observation of Cohen’s has led to a great deal of research on the structure of competition graphs and on the relation between the structure of digraphs and their corresponding competition graphs, with some very useful insights obtained. Competition graphs of many kinds of digraphs have been studied. In many of the applications of interest, the digraphs studied are acyclic: They have no directed cycles. 19

Structure of Competition Graphs We are interested in finding out what graphs are the

Structure of Competition Graphs We are interested in finding out what graphs are the competition graphs arising from semiorders. 20

Competition Graphs of Semiorders Let (V, R) be a semiorder. Think of it as

Competition Graphs of Semiorders Let (V, R) be a semiorder. Think of it as a digraph with an arc from x to y if x. Ry. In the communication application: Transmitters and receivers in a linear corridor and messages can only be transmitted from right to left. Because of local interference (“jamming”) a message sent at x can only be received at y if y 21 is sufficiently far to the left of x.

Competition Graphs of Semiorders The influence application involves a similar model -- though the

Competition Graphs of Semiorders The influence application involves a similar model -- though the linear corridor is a bit farfetched. (We will consider more general situations soon. ) Note that semiorders are acyclic. So: What graphs are competition graphs of semiorders? 22

Graph-Theoretical Notation Kq is the graph with q vertices and edges between all of

Graph-Theoretical Notation Kq is the graph with q vertices and edges between all of them: K 5 23

Graph-Theoretical Notation Iq is the graph with q vertices and no edges: I 7

Graph-Theoretical Notation Iq is the graph with q vertices and no edges: I 7 24

Competition Graphs of Semiorders Theorem: A graph G is the competition graph of a

Competition Graphs of Semiorders Theorem: A graph G is the competition graph of a semiorder iff G = Iq for q > 0 or G = Kr Iq for r >1, q > 0. Proof: straightforward. K 5 U I 7 25

Competition Graphs of Semiorders So: Is this interesting? 26

Competition Graphs of Semiorders So: Is this interesting? 26

Boring!

Boring!

Really boring!

Really boring!

Competition Graphs of Interval Orders A similar theorem holds for interval orders. D =

Competition Graphs of Interval Orders A similar theorem holds for interval orders. D = (V, A) is an interval order if there is an assignment of a (closed) real interval J(x) to each vertex x in V so that for all x, y V, (x, y) A J(x) is strictly to the right of J(y). Semiorders are a special case of interval orders where every interval has the same length. 29

Competition Graphs of Interval Orders Theorem: A graph G is the competition graph of

Competition Graphs of Interval Orders Theorem: A graph G is the competition graph of an interval order iff G = Iq for q > 0 or G = Kr Iq for r >1, q > 0. Corollary: A graph is the competition graph of an interval order iff it is the competition graph of a semiorder. Note that the competition graphs obtained from semiorders and interval orders are always interval graphs. We are led to generalizations. 30

The Weak Order Associated with a Semiorder Given a binary relation (V, R), define

The Weak Order Associated with a Semiorder Given a binary relation (V, R), define a new binary relation (V, ) as follows: a b ( u)[b. Ru a. Ru & u. Ra u. Rb] It is well known that if (V, R) is a semiorder, then (V, ) is a weak order. This “associated weak order” plays an important role in the analysis of semiorders. 31

The Condition C(p) We will be interested in a related relation (V, W): a.

The Condition C(p) We will be interested in a related relation (V, W): a. Wb ( u)[b. Ru a. Ru] Condition C(p), p 2 A digraph D = (V, A) satisfies condition C(p) if whenever S is a subset of V of p vertices, there is a vertex x in S so that y. Wx for all y S – {x}. Such an x is called a foot of set S. 32

The Condition C(p) does seem to be an interesting restriction in its own right

The Condition C(p) does seem to be an interesting restriction in its own right when it comes to influence. It is a strong requirement: Given any set S of p individuals in a group, there is an individual x in S so that whenever x has influence over individual u, then so do all individuals in S. 33

The Condition C(p) a b d c e f Note that a. Wc. If

The Condition C(p) a b d c e f Note that a. Wc. If S = {a, b, c}, foot of S is c: we have a. Wc, b. Wc 34

The Condition C(p) Claim: A semiorder (V, R) satisfies condition C(p) for all p

The Condition C(p) Claim: A semiorder (V, R) satisfies condition C(p) for all p 2. Proof: Let f be a function satisfying: (x, y) R f(x) > f(y) + Given subset S of p elements, a foot of S is an element with lowest f-value. A similar result holds for interval orders. We shall ask: What graphs are competition graphs of acyclic digraphs that satisfy condition C(p)? 35

Aside: The Competition Number Suppose D is an acyclic digraph. Then its competition graph

Aside: The Competition Number Suppose D is an acyclic digraph. Then its competition graph must have an isolated vertex (a vertex with no neighbors). Theorem: If G is any graph, adding sufficiently many isolated vertices produces the competition graph of some acyclic digraph. Proof: Construct acyclic digraph D as follows. Start with all vertices of G. For each edge {x, y} in G, add a vertex (x, y) and arcs from x and y to (x, y). Then G together with the isolated vertices (x, y) is the competition graph of D. 36

The Competition Number b a c b a d D G = C 4

The Competition Number b a c b a d D G = C 4 α(a, b) d c a b α(b, c) α(c, d) α(a, b) α(b, c) C(D) = G U I 4 α(c, d) d α(a, d) c

The Competition Number If G is any graph, let k be the smallest number

The Competition Number If G is any graph, let k be the smallest number so that G Ik is a competition graph of some acyclic digraph. k = k(G) is well defined. It is called the competition number of G. 38

The Competition Number Our previous construction shows that k(C 4) 4. In fact: •

The Competition Number Our previous construction shows that k(C 4) 4. In fact: • C 4 I 2 is a competition graph • C 4 I 1 is not • So k(C 4) = 2. 39

The Competition Number Competition numbers are known for many interesting graphs and classes of

The Competition Number Competition numbers are known for many interesting graphs and classes of graphs. However: Theorem (Opsut): It is an NP-complete problem to compute k(G). 40

Competition Graphs of Digraphs Satisfying Condition C(p) Theorem: Suppose that p 2 and G

Competition Graphs of Digraphs Satisfying Condition C(p) Theorem: Suppose that p 2 and G is a graph. Then G is the competition graph of an acyclic digraph D satisfying condition C(p) iff G is one of the following graphs: (a). Iq for q > 0 (b). Kr Iq for r > 1, q > 0 (c). L Iq where L has fewer than p vertices, q > 0, and q k(L). 41

Competition Graphs of Digraphs Satisfying Condition C(p) Note that the earlier results for semiorders

Competition Graphs of Digraphs Satisfying Condition C(p) Note that the earlier results for semiorders and interval orders now follow since they satisfy C(2). Thus, condition (c) has to have L = I 1 and condition (c) reduces to condition (a). 42

Competition Graphs of Digraphs Satisfying Condition C(p) Corollary: A graph G is the competition

Competition Graphs of Digraphs Satisfying Condition C(p) Corollary: A graph G is the competition graph of an acyclic digraph satisfying condition C(2) iff G = Iq for q > 0 or G = Kr Iq for r >1, q > 0. Corollary: A graph G is the competition graph of an acyclic digraph satisfying condition C(3) iff G = Iq for q > 0 or G = Kr Iq for r >1, q > 0. 43

Competition Graphs of Digraphs Satisfying Condition C(p) Corollary: Let G be a graph. Then

Competition Graphs of Digraphs Satisfying Condition C(p) Corollary: Let G be a graph. Then G is the competition graph of an acyclic digraph satisfying condition C(4) iff one of the following holds: (a). G = Iq for q > 0 (b). G = Kr Iq for r > 1, q > 0 (c). G = P 3 Iq for q > 0, where P 3 is the path of three vertices. 44

Competition Graphs of Digraphs Satisfying Condition C(p) Corollary: Let G be a graph. Then

Competition Graphs of Digraphs Satisfying Condition C(p) Corollary: Let G be a graph. Then G is the competition graph of an acyclic digraph satisfying condition C(5) iff one of the following holds: (a). G = Iq for q > 0 (b). G = Kr Iq for r > 1, q > 0 Kr: r vertices, all edges (c). G = P 3 Iq for q > 0 Pr: path of r vertices (d). G = P 4 Iq for q > 0 Cr: cycle of r vertices (e). G = K 1, 3 Iq for q > 0 K 1, 3: x joined to a, b, c (f). G = K 2 Iq for q > 0 (g). G = C 4 Iq for q > 1 K 4 – e: Remove one edge (h). G = K 4 – e Iq for q > 0 45 (i). G = K 4 – P 3 Iq for q > 0

Competition Graphs of Digraphs Satisfying Condition C(p) By part (c) of theorem, the following

Competition Graphs of Digraphs Satisfying Condition C(p) By part (c) of theorem, the following are competition graphs of acyclic digraphs satisfying condition C(p): L Iq for L with fewer than p vertices and q > 0, q k(L). If Cr is the cycle of r > 3 vertices, then k(Cr) = 2. Thus, for p > 4, Cp-1 I 2 is a competition graph of an acyclic digraph satisfying C(p). If p > 4, Cp-1 I 2 is not an interval graph. 46

Competition Graphs of Digraphs Satisfying Condition C(p) Part (c) of the Theorem really says

Competition Graphs of Digraphs Satisfying Condition C(p) Part (c) of the Theorem really says that condition C(p) does not pin down the graph structure. In fact, as long as the graph L has fewer than p vertices, then no matter how complex its structure, adding sufficiently many isolated vertices makes L into a competition graph of an acyclic digraph satisfying C(p). In terms of the influence and communication applications, this says that property C(p) really doesn’t pin down the structure of competition. 47

Duality Let D = (V, A) be a digraph. Its converse Dc has the

Duality Let D = (V, A) be a digraph. Its converse Dc has the same set of vertices and an arc from x to y whenever there is an arc from y to x in D. Observe: Converse of a semiorder or interval order is a semiorder or interval order, respectively. 48

Duality Let D = (V, A) be a digraph. The common enemy graph of

Duality Let D = (V, A) be a digraph. The common enemy graph of D has the same vertex set V and an edge between vertices a and b if there is a vertex x so that there arcs from x to a and x to b. competition graph of D = common enemy graph of Dc. 49

Duality Given a binary relation (V, R), we will be interested in the relation

Duality Given a binary relation (V, R), we will be interested in the relation (V, W'): a. W'b ( u)[u. Ra u. Rb] Contrast the relation a. Wb ( u)[b. Ru a. Ru] Condition C'(p), p 2 A digraph D = (V, A) satisfies condition C'(p) if whenever S is a subset of V of p vertices, there is a vertex x in S so that x. W'y for all 50 y S - {x}.

Duality By duality: There is an acyclic digraph D so that G is the

Duality By duality: There is an acyclic digraph D so that G is the competition graph of D and D satisfies condition C(p) iff there is an acyclic digraph D' so that G is the common enemy graph of D' and D' satisfies condition C'(p). 51

Condition C*(p) A more interesting variant on condition C(p) is the following: A digraph

Condition C*(p) A more interesting variant on condition C(p) is the following: A digraph D = (V, A) satisfies condition C*(p) if whenever S is a subset of V of p vertices, there is a vertex x in S so that x. Wy for all y S - {x}. Such an x is called a head of S. 52

The Condition C*(p) does seem to be an interesting restriction in its own right

The Condition C*(p) does seem to be an interesting restriction in its own right when it comes to influence. This is a strong requirement: Given any set S of p individuals in a group, there is an individual x in S so that whenever any individual in S has influence over individual u, then x has influence over u. 53

The Condition C*(p) Note: A semiorder (V, R) satisfies condition C*(p) for all p

The Condition C*(p) Note: A semiorder (V, R) satisfies condition C*(p) for all p 2. Let f be a function satisfying: (x, y) R f(x) > f(y) + Given subset S of p elements, a head of S is an element with highest f-value. We shall ask: What graphs are competition graphs of acyclic digraphs that satisfy condition C*(p)? 54

Condition C*(p) In general, the problem of determining the graphs that are competition graphs

Condition C*(p) In general, the problem of determining the graphs that are competition graphs of acyclic digraphs satisfying condition C*(p) is unsolved. We know the result for p = 2, 3, 4, or 5. 55

Condition C*(p): Sample Result Theorem: Let G be a graph. Then G is the

Condition C*(p): Sample Result Theorem: Let G be a graph. Then G is the competition graph of an acyclic digraph satisfying condition C*(5) iff one of the following holds: (a). G = Iq for q > 0 (b). G = Kr Iq for r > 1, q > 0 (c). G = Kr - e I 2 for r > 2 (d). G = Kr – P 3 I 1 for r > 3 (e). G = Kr – K 3 I 1 for r > 3 56

Condition C*(p) It is easy to see that these are all interval graphs. Question:

Condition C*(p) It is easy to see that these are all interval graphs. Question: Can we get a noninterval graph this way? ? ? 57

e d c a x b y Easy to see that this digraph is

e d c a x b y Easy to see that this digraph is acyclic. C*(7) holds. The only set S of 7 vertices is V. Easy to see that e is a head of V. 58

b a x e y d c The competition graph has a cycle from

b a x e y d c The competition graph has a cycle from a to b to c to d to a with no other edges among {a, b, c, d}. This is impossible in an interval graph. 59

Open Problems

Open Problems

Open Problems • Characterize graphs G arising as competition graphs of digraphs satisfying C(p)

Open Problems • Characterize graphs G arising as competition graphs of digraphs satisfying C(p) without requiring that D be acyclic. • Characterize graphs G arising as competition graphs of acyclic digraphs satisfying C*(p). • Determine what acyclic digraphs satisfying C(p) or C*(p) have competition graphs that are interval graphs. • Determine what acyclic digraphs satisfy conditions C(p) or C*(p). 61

Closing Remark 62

Closing Remark 62