Comparative Industrial Relations and Global Movements Elaine Bernard

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Comparative Industrial Relations and Global Movements 比较 业关系和全球运动 Elaine Bernard, Ph. D Labor and

Comparative Industrial Relations and Global Movements 比较 业关系和全球运动 Elaine Bernard, Ph. D Labor and Worklife Program & The Trade Union Program, Harvard Law School©

 伊莲·伯纳德博士 简介 Elaine Bernard is Executive Director of the Labor and Worklife Program

伊莲·伯纳德博士 简介 Elaine Bernard is Executive Director of the Labor and Worklife Program (LWP) at Harvard Law School and the Harvard Trade Union Program (HTUP). She has a BA from the University of Alberta, a MA from the University of British Columbia and a Ph. D. from Simon Fraser University. Bernard is a popular public speaker. A life long union member and activist, Bernard brings a refreshing balance of humor and passion for worker rights to her talks and teaching. She has conducted courses on a wide variety of topics for unions, community groups, universities and government departments. Her current research and teaching interests are in the areas of international comparative labor movements, union leadership and governance, and the role of unions in promoting civil society, democracy and economic justice. 伊莲·伯纳德博士同时担任哈佛大学法学院劳动和 作生活项目(LWP)和哈佛 会 计划(HTUP)的执行主管。她先后从阿尔伯塔大学(University of Alberta)取得学 士学位,英属哥伦比亚大学(University of British Columbia)取得硕士学位,西 蒙·弗雷泽大学取得博士学位。伯纳德博士的公开演讲广受欢迎。作为一名致力终 生的 会成员和社会活动家,她在 人权利的演讲和教学中兼具幽默和激情,带 来一股新风。她主讲的课程主题涵盖了 会、社群、大学和政府部门。她目前的 研究与教学兴趣集中在国际劳动关系模式的比较、 会领导力与治理,以及 会 在推进公民社会、民主和经济公正中的作用。

Why study comparative labor relations? 为什么要学习比较劳动关系 • Global economy and global capital dominate. 国际经济形势与国际资本的主导作用

Why study comparative labor relations? 为什么要学习比较劳动关系 • Global economy and global capital dominate. 国际经济形势与国际资本的主导作用 • Labor unions and workers face many challenges in today’s economy. 在当今经济生活中, 会与 人需要面对许多挑战 • Labor movements and unions need a global perspective. 劳 运动和 会需要全球视野 • Labor exchanges and solidarity can improve conditions for workers everywhere 劳 领域的跨地域交流能够惠及各地的劳动者

International (OECD) Trend Line 国际(OECD)趋势 • Widespread decline in union density in most countries

International (OECD) Trend Line 国际(OECD)趋势 • Widespread decline in union density in most countries (though not in Collective Bargaining coverage) 在大多数国家中 会密度普遍下降 (尽管集体协商覆盖 率并没有相对下降) • Most severe decline in union representation primarily in the private sector 大多数服务的下降主要集中在私营领域的 会代表 • Growing gap between union density in public sector vs. private sector 在公共领域和私营领域之间的 会密度的差距越来越大

Reasons for Decline… 下降的原因 • Globalization – intensification of international economic & political integration

Reasons for Decline… 下降的原因 • Globalization – intensification of international economic & political integration (free trade race to the bottom) 全球化 – 加强国际经济和政治一体化(自由贸易战打到底线) • Changes in organization of production and employment (contracting out, offshoring, lean production, Ji. T inventory systems…) 改变生产和就业的组织(外包、离岸外包,精益生产, 即时库存系统…) • Decline of job-based/workplace focus of employment 减少 作/ 作场所集中的就业 • Decline in large, concentrated workplaces 减少大规模集中的 作场所 • Transformation of employment relationship (decline in full time, regular, permanent employment – growth in part time, contingent, limited term, precarious employment) 雇佣关系的转变(减少全职,常规,永久性就业,增长为兼职, 临时,有限和不稳定的就业) • Employer (including government) hostility/opposition to unions 雇主(包括政府)敌意/反对 会

The Five Fingers of Globalization 全球化的五个方面 • Trade in goods/services 货物/服务贸易 • Immigration/migration &

The Five Fingers of Globalization 全球化的五个方面 • Trade in goods/services 货物/服务贸易 • Immigration/migration & movement of people 移民/迁徙运动 • Capital flows/finance 资本流动/金融 • Technology 技术 • Governance 政府及管理

Varieties of Economies & Industrial Relations Regimes 多种经济体和劳资关系制度 (adapted from Varieties of Capitalism, Hall

Varieties of Economies & Industrial Relations Regimes 多种经济体和劳资关系制度 (adapted from Varieties of Capitalism, Hall & Soskice (2001) Liberal Market Economies 自由市场经济体 Coordinated Market Economies 协调市场经济体 Well-developed capital markets 发达的资本市场 ‘patient’ forms of capital 长期资本投资 ‘outsider’ forms of corporate governance Insider forms of corporate governance “局外人”形式的企业管理 内部形式的企业管理 Market-based forms of industrial relations 以市场为基础形式的劳资关系 Industrial relations systems based on bargaining & long term commitment to employees 劳资关系系统基于协商谈判和对员 的长期承诺 Use of market mechanisms & contracts to coordinate relations with suppliers/buyers 利用市场机制和合约来协调供应商与买家的关系 Use of non market mechanisms, coordinate relations between firms & across industries & sectors 使用非市场机制来协调公司与各行业各部门之间的关系 Liberal Market 自由市场 Coordinated Market European Developed Asian Emerging United States 美国 United Kingdom英国 Canada加拿大 Australia澳大利亚 Germany德国 Denmark丹麦 Japan日本 United Kingdom英国 Japan日本 South Korea 南朝鲜 China中国 India印度 Vietnam越南

(ETUL 2009) Union Density CB Coverage 会密度 CB覆盖 Austria澳大利亚 35 Belgium比利时 55 China 中国

(ETUL 2009) Union Density CB Coverage 会密度 CB覆盖 Austria澳大利亚 35 Belgium比利时 55 China 中国 48 Denmark丹麦 80 France法国 8 Germany德国 22 Italy意大利 34 Japan日本 22 Korea韩国 11 Sweden瑞典 78 United Kingdom英国 28 United States of America 美国 11

(ETUL 2009) Union Density CB Coverage 会密度 CB覆盖 Austria澳大利亚 35 98 Belgium比利时 55 96

(ETUL 2009) Union Density CB Coverage 会密度 CB覆盖 Austria澳大利亚 35 98 Belgium比利时 55 96 China 中国 48 32 Denmark丹麦 80 80 France法国 8 93 Germany德国 22 64 Italy意大利 34 80 Japan日本 22 18 Korea韩国 11 13 Sweden瑞典 78 90 United Kingdom英国 28 34 United States of America 美国 11 13

Core Labor Standards 核心劳 标准 • Freedom of association & the Right to collectively

Core Labor Standards 核心劳 标准 • Freedom of association & the Right to collectively bargain 自由联合以及集体谈判的权力 • The elimination of all forms of forced or compulsory labor 消除一切形式的强迫和强制劳动 • The abolition of child labor 废除童 • The elimination of discrimination in respect of employment & occupation 消除在就业和职业方面的歧视

International Comparative Labor Movements 国际比较劳 运动 • Industrial Relations Parties Actors 劳资关系 – Unions

International Comparative Labor Movements 国际比较劳 运动 • Industrial Relations Parties Actors 劳资关系 – Unions (worker organizations) 会( 人组织) Structure, history, philosophy, methods of representation & action 结构、历史、理念、代表的方法及行动 – Employers (employer organizations) 雇主(雇主组织) Industry or sectoral associations, ownership, corporate governance 行业或部门组织、所有权和公司治理 – The State (and its agencies) 政府的角色 legal environment, economic polices, political relations, dispute resolution, public sector 法律环境、经济政策、政治关系、争议解 决、公共部门

International Comparative Labor Movements 国际比较劳 运动 • Industrial Relations Process 劳资关系进程 – Collective bargaining

International Comparative Labor Movements 国际比较劳 运动 • Industrial Relations Process 劳资关系进程 – Collective bargaining 集体协商谈判 – Worker involvement & participation (in the workplace) 人参与 – Influencing the state (political parties, lobbying) 影响政府 (政治团体、游说) – Employer actions and management methods 雇主行动及管理方法

International Comparative Labor Movements 国际比较劳 运动 • Current & Future Issues 当前与未来的问题 – Decline

International Comparative Labor Movements 国际比较劳 运动 • Current & Future Issues 当前与未来的问题 – Decline of union density 会密度下降 – Work life balance 作与生活的平衡 – Life long learning 终身学习 – Providing security in an increasingly insecure world of work 在日益不安全的 作环境中提供安全保障

Advancing the Field of Labor Relations: U. S. -China Exchange 劳动关系发展 – 中美教育交流项目 •

Advancing the Field of Labor Relations: U. S. -China Exchange 劳动关系发展 – 中美教育交流项目 • Website网站: www. alrexchange. org • Workshops, lectures, discussions in China 开设在中国的研讨会、讲座、讨论 • Academic program 学术项目 • 2015 Conference in China 2015年在中国举行论坛

www. alrexchange. org 网站中文版亦可访问

www. alrexchange. org 网站中文版亦可访问

Thank you! 谢谢 Please contact: May Chen alrchina@sps. cuny. edu

Thank you! 谢谢 Please contact: May Chen [email protected] cuny. edu