COMMUNITY-BASED TOURISM PROF. DR. SYED RASHIDUL HASAN DEPT. OF TOURISM & HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT UNIVERSITY OF DHAKA BANGLADESH
A community is a social unit of any size that shares common values.
One broad definition of Community"a group or network of persons who are connected (objectively) to each other by relatively durable social relations that extend beyond immediate genealogical ties, and who mutually define that relationship (subjectively) as important to their social identity and social practice. "
What is Community-based Tourism? Ownership Local community Management Control Community-based Tourism Products and Projects
More specifically… are owned by local communities, CBT refers to tourism activities or enterprises that occur on their lands, are based on their cultural and natural/manmade assets and attractions, are for community development and environment conservation, retain major portion of the earnings for local communities.
Why Community-based Tourism? extreme growth of tourism negative effects increased interest in Sustainable Development Communitybased Tourism
Why Community-Based Tourism (CBT)? Community Based Tourism Environmental & Ecological Sustainability Economic/Financial sustainability
Threat to Environment : Human beings destroy their own Tourism assets : Threat to man-made assets
Thre at to Nat ure- bas ed A sse ts Human beings destroy their own Tourism assets :
Economic Sustainability : Finding Alternative Tool for Poverty Alleviation
WHY Community People at Grass root level cannot get benefits of tourism ? ? ? Tourism business is dominated by rich and the elites. Rich people own luxurious hotels, theme parks, eating places, cottages, motels, casinos and others. Big tourism investments are done in urban areas mainly. The underprivileged does not have entry to ownership. Have to Change our Out look…. For the underprivileged poor community
Traditional TOP-DOWN APPPROACH (Investment Benefit flow) Planning, policy, finance, implementation done at the top Public Private Partnership (PPP) Benefit goes back to Top Community remains dried
BOTTOM-UP APPROACH (Investment Benefit Flow) Both Top and community at the bottom are benefitted Public Private Community Partnership (PPCP) Planning, policy, finance, implementation done at the bottom involving local community on PPCP
CBT : Success or Not ? ? ? Almost since last four decades, CBT has been thought as a tool by which the local community can alleviate their economic condition. Many of the countries namely Cambodia, Thailand, Nepal, India, Indonesia, Peru, Uruguay, Bolivia, Chilie, Kenya, Namibia, etc. claim to have successful CBT stories. Success Failure
On the other side. . . . Harold Goodwin, along with Rosa Santilli (2009) mentioned in their study, out of 116 CBT initiatives nominated from all over the world, only 4 were economically sustainable Mitchell and Muckosy reported from a research by the Rainforest Alliance and Conservation International which reviewed 200 CBT projects across the Americas that many CBT accommodation providers had only 5% occupancy. Why not successful ? ? ?
Confused ? ? ? For many of the CBT projects there have been no efforts to assess if these are successful or not. Many of the CBT projects funded by government/donor agencies in developing countries, have not been monitored to assess their success. More Confusion ? ? ? Many apparently recognized CBT initiatives capitalizing man-made resources were not considered as CBT by many expert researchers. These so-called CBT initiatives have demonstrated very considerable employment, local economic development and collective community benefits, for example Manda Wilderness (Mozambique), Aga Khan Development Network in Pakistan (Baltit and Shigar Forts) and Chumbe Island (Tanzania).
Need a Compromise ? ? ? In some other studies, understanding of a successful CBT has emphasized on community’s Unique Selling Tourism Offers (USTO), and available tourism assets around. In this approach, more emphasis has been given on the inherited unique potential skill coupled with the community services offered to explore natural/man-made tourism resources.
Observation Example Mere creation of eco-lodges without offering some unique services to the tourists will not allure tourists to visit the area. • CBT initiative in La Yunga in Bolivia is an example to support this observation. Community-based tourism initiatives in Bolivia are based on the development of community-owned and managed lodges or home-stays. At La Yunga the lodge attracted only 60 visitors per year with a bed occupancy of 2. 7% only. • The community subsequently developed a walking trail which in 2005 attracted 1000 people paying $1. 80 trail fee, grossing $1800 plus guide fees and other purchases from the community. The example demonstrates that the common focus on accommodation only is inappropriate – the community benefited far more when it provided an activity, their initiative required a much smaller investment than the investment in the lodge.
Models for Assessing a Suitable Community for CBT Different communities inherit unique artistic expertise from their ancestors in various types of craftsmanship like hand weaving, pottery, goldsmith, embroidery, snake charming, dancing etc. which could be called as Unique Selling Tourism Offers (USTO). All communities may not have the USTOs and may not be suitable for CBT. To ensure which community is suitable, an assessment of community tourism potential should be carried on. These models have been based on the tripartite relationship among tourists, communities and touristic attractions.
MODEL 1 : Transit travelers destined for natural/man-made attractions via community settlements Tourists Natural/manmade attractions Community SUNLUST Community & Community activities Main attraction is natural/manmade tourism assets; so less benefit to the community WANDER LUST OTHERS
MODEL 2 : Only Community USTOs (no other added attractions) Tourists Community
MODEL 3 : Community USTOs blended with natural/man-made tourists attractions (community is the host) Tourists COMMUNITY VILLAGE Community Natural/manmade assets
Tourism : Bangladesh Perspective • World Travel & Tourism Council (2014) claims : • that the total contribution of Travel & Tourism to GDP of Bangladesh was BDT 460. 3 bn (4. 4% of GDP) in 2013, • to rise by 7. 9% in 2014, and • to rise by 6. 5% pa to BDT 935. 5 bn (4. 7% of GDP) in 2024. • In 2013, the total contribution of Travel & Tourism to employment, including jobs indirectly supported by the industry, was 3. 8% of total employment (2, 846, 500 jobs). • This is expected to rise by 4. 2% in 2014 to 2, 965, 000 jobs and • rise by 3. 0% pa to 3, 974, 000 jobs in 2024 (4. 2% of total). • All the indicators show a slow but steady growth in tourism and hospitality sector of the country.
Why is Community Based Tourism Important in Bangladesh? 1 2 Over Populated Country Conservation of tourism assets by involving the local community 3 Economic vulnerability due to the instability of agriculture and the export of goods and services 4 Existence of several unique Communities having separate tradition, culture and craftsmanship 5 Concentration of tourist money in city based tourism establishments; thereby uneven distribution of tourism earnings.
Locations of Various Tribal Ethnic Groups in Bangladesh.
STEPS 1. Tourism Potential Assessment ACTIVITIES 1. Determine the USTOs and the potential natural/man-made attractions nearby through surveys 2. Secure Assistance 1. Hire local NGO or tourism consulting firm, or other competent agencies 3. Develop an Integrated Approach 1. Hold community meetings 2. Formation of a local community tourism committee 3. Identify entrepreneurs and opportunities for community cooperatives 4. Develop Products 1. Develop training programs 2. Promote training programs 3. Implement programs 5. Market Community 1. Develop marketing material for the community, tourist attractions. 2. Promote community in the Internet and travel books 6. On-going Support 1. Assess situation 2. Provide ongoing support as needed RESULTS 1. A list of potential tourism products 1. Assistance with the various stages of tourism development (mainly creating service offering structures) 1. Community approval on future developments 2. Local tourism committee is responsible for future tourism initiatives 3. Selection of most viable and suitable products to develop 4. Development of a community brand 1. Trained residents 2. Development of viable products 1. Arrival of first tourists 1. A successful and sustainable tourism industry 2. A functioning tourism committee
CBT IS LIKE CHICK IN THE HAND