Community Interactions Relationships Between Organisms PredatorPrey Relationships Predators

  • Slides: 61
Download presentation
Community Interactions Relationships Between Organisms

Community Interactions Relationships Between Organisms

 • Predator-Prey Relationships – Predators can affect the size of prey populations in

• Predator-Prey Relationships – Predators can affect the size of prey populations in a community and determine the places prey can live and feed • Ex: Fox and rabbit populations

 • Herbivore-Plant Relationships – Herbivores can affect both the size and distribution of

• Herbivore-Plant Relationships – Herbivores can affect both the size and distribution of plant populations in a community and determine the places certain plants can survive and grow • Ex: White tailed deer and food plants

Keystone Species: – A species of great importance to a community – If it’s

Keystone Species: – A species of great importance to a community – If it’s population changes it can cause dramatic changes to structure of community

– Ex: • Sea Otters off Pacific Coast of North America – Links to

– Ex: • Sea Otters off Pacific Coast of North America – Links to Sea urchins, kelp and many other species – http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=e. Yp. Mq. DNKzs&safe=active

 • Beavers (a keystone species) http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=k. ZVb. Kw. Dmr-o&safe=active

• Beavers (a keystone species) http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=k. ZVb. Kw. Dmr-o&safe=active

Symbiotic Relationships • Organisms live in close association with each other and at least

Symbiotic Relationships • Organisms live in close association with each other and at least one benefits. • Relationships that help one or both species to survive • Symbiotic Relationships: • http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=n. Rk. Wz Lz. Ci 2 U&safe=active

Mutualism: – Both species benefit Ex: • Clown Fish and Sea Anemone • Ants

Mutualism: – Both species benefit Ex: • Clown Fish and Sea Anemone • Ants and aphids • “Cleaning Stations” (Rhino and “Tick Bird”)

 • Ex: Protozoa in digestive tracts of termites – Termites have cellulose digesting

• Ex: Protozoa in digestive tracts of termites – Termites have cellulose digesting microorganisms in their digestive tract – Provide food and a place to live – Termites could not get nutrients from wood without them. http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Ci. BAq 2 a 6 qj. Q&safe=active

 • Ant and Butterfly Symbiosis: • http: //video. nationalgeographic. com/video/ animals/bugs-animals/ants-andtermites/ant_caterpillarsymbiosis/ • Goby

• Ant and Butterfly Symbiosis: • http: //video. nationalgeographic. com/video/ animals/bugs-animals/ants-andtermites/ant_caterpillarsymbiosis/ • Goby and Shrimp • http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=d. Ku. Wl. B j. UFo 8&safe=active

Commensalism: • One species benefits, the other species is neither harmed nor benefitted –

Commensalism: • One species benefits, the other species is neither harmed nor benefitted – Ex: Remora and pilot fish and shark – Eats scraps from sharks meal – Barnacle and whale – Whale travels about, allowing them to get a constantly new supply of food

Parasitism: • One organism benefits and the other is harmed • Generally parasites weaken,

Parasitism: • One organism benefits and the other is harmed • Generally parasites weaken, but do not kill the host – EX: – Tapeworms in digestive tract – Mistletoe plant: sends roots into host plant and absorbs water, minerals and nutrients – Cowbird (brood parasite) – Leeches, Ticks, Fleas, Lice (feed on blood and skin of animals)

 • Check out this Crazy Fungal Parasite! • Cordyceps: http: //www. youtube. com/watch?

• Check out this Crazy Fungal Parasite! • Cordyceps: http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Xu. Kj. BIBBAL 8&safe=a ctive • Body Invaders: • http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=v. MGLWy. Nc. As&safe=active

 • Symbiotic Relationships: • http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=z. Sm. L 2 F

• Symbiotic Relationships: • http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=z. Sm. L 2 F 1 t 81 Q&safe=active

Ecological Succession

Ecological Succession

Succession in Communities • Changes that take place to communities over time (especially after

Succession in Communities • Changes that take place to communities over time (especially after disturbances). • Living organisms alter their environment making it more suitable for some, less suitable for others • Original organisms slowly replaced by others until climax community is reached • Takes decades or even centuries to develop

Islands of Hawaii • How did they become a tropical paradise? • Started off

Islands of Hawaii • How did they become a tropical paradise? • Started off as volcanic rock.

Primary Succession: • Colonization of new sites (lifeless areas) • Bare rock, new volcanic

Primary Succession: • Colonization of new sites (lifeless areas) • Bare rock, new volcanic islands, sand, stream bank (no organic material present) – Slow process – Begins with soil formation

Soil Formation: • Starts with rocks • Erosion by wind/rain causes pieces to break

Soil Formation: • Starts with rocks • Erosion by wind/rain causes pieces to break off • Freezing/thawing of water causes cracks to form

Pioneer Organisms: first organisms to colonize barren areas Ex: Lichens: (mutualistic symbiosis between fungus/algae)

Pioneer Organisms: first organisms to colonize barren areas Ex: Lichens: (mutualistic symbiosis between fungus/algae) – Cling to rocks, secrete acids that help break down rock – When they die, they add layer of organic material that starts soil formation http: //teachertube. com/view. Video. php? video_id=182733

 • Plants like mosses now can grow in the thin layer of soil

• Plants like mosses now can grow in the thin layer of soil • When they die out the soil layer gets thicker and thicker eventually allowing plants with deeper and deeper roots to thrive. • Eventually a climax community develops

Primary Succession

Primary Succession

How Long Does it Take? Note: Animal life will also change with the succession

How Long Does it Take? Note: Animal life will also change with the succession of plants Ex: grass eaters – shrub dwellers – tree livers

Climax Community: • Community at the end of line of succession that is mature

Climax Community: • Community at the end of line of succession that is mature and stable – Described in terms of dominant plant forms – Type of climax community depends on the physical factors in environment • Ex: – Good soil/good rainfall = forest community – Good soil/less rainfall = grassland community – Climax Communities: – http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=i. ZA 5 yfrz. LV 8&safe=active

 • Examples of Climax Communities: • Sphagnum Bog: shallow lake/pond, peat moss •

• Examples of Climax Communities: • Sphagnum Bog: shallow lake/pond, peat moss • Mangrove Swamp: muddy tidal flat, mangrove trees • Pine Barrens: sandy peat soil, pine trees

Secondary Succession • Occurs in an area where the climax community has been destroyed

Secondary Succession • Occurs in an area where the climax community has been destroyed • However, SOIL IS STILL THERE! • Occurs at a faster rate, soil is already present. – Ex: – Forest fire, flood, volcanic explosion, human development • • Succession after Fire: http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=C 2 ZRe_k. IRd. A&safe=active

 • Pine Barrens Fire Note: some species require catastrophe to reproduce Ex: Certain

• Pine Barrens Fire Note: some species require catastrophe to reproduce Ex: Certain pine cones will only release seeds if heated by fire

Secondary Succession Can Happen Here Soil is Established

Secondary Succession Can Happen Here Soil is Established

Succession in Lakes and Ponds • Sediment, fallen leaves, debris gradually accumulate on the

Succession in Lakes and Ponds • Sediment, fallen leaves, debris gradually accumulate on the lake bottom • Plants take root in the shallower water along edge • Pond eventually becomes a marsh • Eventually fills up becoming dry land

 • Succession Summary: • http: //educationportal. com/academy/lesson/ecologicalsuccession-from-pioneer-to-climaxcommunities. html

• Succession Summary: • http: //educationportal. com/academy/lesson/ecologicalsuccession-from-pioneer-to-climaxcommunities. html

Biomes of the Earth

Biomes of the Earth

Biomes: large geographical regions characterized by a particular type of climax community Have similar:

Biomes: large geographical regions characterized by a particular type of climax community Have similar: temperature range annual precipitation sun exposure type of soil type of plants and animals

 • Temperature Differences: – Not all parts of the earth get the same

• Temperature Differences: – Not all parts of the earth get the same amount of sunlight – Five times stronger at equator than at the poles – Seasons change due to tilt of Earth’s axis and amount of sunlight over course of the day

 • Topography: – Mountain ranges can affect rainfall patterns from one side of

• Topography: – Mountain ranges can affect rainfall patterns from one side of mountain to another – Can often see changes in plant communities with increasing altitude as temperature changes

Types of Terrestrial Biomes

Types of Terrestrial Biomes

Tundra http: //educationportal. com/academy/lesson/biomestundra-taiga-temperate-grassland-and -coastlines. html • Characteristics: – – Low average temp, short

Tundra http: //educationportal. com/academy/lesson/biomestundra-taiga-temperate-grassland-and -coastlines. html • Characteristics: – – Low average temp, short growing season Long cold winters where ground is completely frozen Only thin top layer thaws in summer, rest is permafrost Average precipitation 10 -12 cm per year (mostly snow)

Tundra • Vegetation: – lichens, moss, grasses, sedges, shrubs – Almost no trees due

Tundra • Vegetation: – lichens, moss, grasses, sedges, shrubs – Almost no trees due to permafrost and short growing season – Nutrient poor soil due to slow rate of decomposition (nutrients recycled slowly)

Tundra • Animals: – Reindeer, mush oxen, caribou, wolves, arctic hares, arctic foxes, lemmings,

Tundra • Animals: – Reindeer, mush oxen, caribou, wolves, arctic hares, arctic foxes, lemmings, snowy owls – During warm season: a lot of insects like flies and mosquitoes bring birds, ducks, geese to nest and breed in safety because of relative absence of certain predators

Taiga http: //dsc. discovery. com/tv-shows/other-shows/videos/assignment-discovery-shorts-iii-biomes-taiga. htm • Characteristics: • Cold severe winters, short mild

Taiga http: //dsc. discovery. com/tv-shows/other-shows/videos/assignment-discovery-shorts-iii-biomes-taiga. htm • Characteristics: • Cold severe winters, short mild summers • Ground thaws completely in summer (no permafrost), so can support tree growth • Precipitation 35 -40 cm a year with a lot of fog

Taiga • Vegetation: • Mostly coniferous pines, firs, spruce (evergreens) • Soil often acidic

Taiga • Vegetation: • Mostly coniferous pines, firs, spruce (evergreens) • Soil often acidic due to pine needles

Taiga • Animals: • Moose, wolves, bears, lynx, deer, elk, wolverines, martens, snow shoe

Taiga • Animals: • Moose, wolves, bears, lynx, deer, elk, wolverines, martens, snow shoe hares, porcupines, rodents, birds, insects

Deserts • • • Characteristics: Driest biome Sandy soil, nutrient poor Rainfall less than

Deserts • • • Characteristics: Driest biome Sandy soil, nutrient poor Rainfall less than 25 cm per year (arid) Temp. varies widely during day

Deserts • Vegetation: • Special adaptations to conserve water • Widespread shallow roots to

Deserts • Vegetation: • Special adaptations to conserve water • Widespread shallow roots to get maximum water when available • Cactus, yucca, mesquite trees, sagebrush, creosote bushes

Deserts • Animals: • Many active at night, sleep during day due to heat

Deserts • Animals: • Many active at night, sleep during day due to heat • Adaptations to conserve water and radiate excess heat • Fennec, snakes, lizards, spiders, scorpions, foxes, coyotes, hawks, owls, kangaroo rat http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=7 Ifk 9 IJl 0 A 0&safe=active

Temperate Deciduous Forests • • Characteristics: Cold winters, hot and humid summers Growing season

Temperate Deciduous Forests • • Characteristics: Cold winters, hot and humid summers Growing season about 6 months of year Rainfall 75 -150 cm per year

Temperate Deciduous Forests • • Vegetation: Soil: thick top layer of humus Mostly deciduous

Temperate Deciduous Forests • • Vegetation: Soil: thick top layer of humus Mostly deciduous trees Period of plant dormancy during winter (lose leaves) • Oak, maple, hickory, beech, chestnut, birch, shrubs, herbaceous plants, ferns and mosses

Temperate Deciduous Forests • Animals: • Many hibernate during winter • Wolf, fox, bobcat,

Temperate Deciduous Forests • Animals: • Many hibernate during winter • Wolf, fox, bobcat, deer, raccoon, squirrel, chipmunk, rabbits, salamanders, birds (many migrate during winter)

Grasslands • Characteristics: • Prairies, steppes, pampas, savannah • Occurs in both temperate and

Grasslands • Characteristics: • Prairies, steppes, pampas, savannah • Occurs in both temperate and tropical climates • Rainfalls is 25 -75 cm per year (usually with dry season) • Soil deep and rich, (good farmland) • http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=msd. Y-JJilz. M&safe=active

Grasslands • Vegetation: • Many species of grass (rye, oat, wheat) and wild flowers

Grasslands • Vegetation: • Many species of grass (rye, oat, wheat) and wild flowers • Where more water present, shrubs and some trees may develop.

Grasslands • Animals: • North America: coyote, rattlesnake, prairie dog, jack rabbit, bison, pheasant,

Grasslands • Animals: • North America: coyote, rattlesnake, prairie dog, jack rabbit, bison, pheasant, prairie chicken, hawk, owl • Africa: zebras, giraffes, gazelles, lions, elephants

Tropical Rain Forests • Characteristics: • Most biologically diverse ecosystem • Greatest number of

Tropical Rain Forests • Characteristics: • Most biologically diverse ecosystem • Greatest number of species per unit area • Uniform warm wet climate through year • Constant rainfall 200400 cm per year

Tropical Rain Forest • Vegetation: • Broad leaved plants, most do not lose leaves

Tropical Rain Forest • Vegetation: • Broad leaved plants, most do not lose leaves • Little light hits lower canopy • Only shade tolerant trees, vines and shrubs, grow below tall trees • Little organic material in soil (poor farmland) • Organic materials decay quickly and recycle back into living plants

Tropical Rain Forest • Animals: • Wide variety, many are adapted to live at

Tropical Rain Forest • Animals: • Wide variety, many are adapted to live at a particular level of the canopy • Monkeys, bats, parrots, snakes, lizards, tapirs, insects

Aquatic Ecosystems • Major Abiotic Factors: – Water depth: • Photic Zone: sunlight can

Aquatic Ecosystems • Major Abiotic Factors: – Water depth: • Photic Zone: sunlight can reach it, photosynthesis can occur • Aphotic Zone: deeper water, photosynthesis cannot occur – Amount of dissolve gasses and nutrients • Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Phosphorus

Aquatic Ecosystems • Marine Biomes (saltwater oceans) – Largest most stable biome (70% of

Aquatic Ecosystems • Marine Biomes (saltwater oceans) – Largest most stable biome (70% of earths surface) – Most photosynthesis on Earth is done here by algae near ocean surface – Oceans absorbs and hold large quantities of heat and help to regulate Earth’s temp. – Temperature very stable, changes less during the day than on land

 • Marine Animals: • Ocean floor (benthic life): Sponges, corals, barnacles, anemones, starfish,

• Marine Animals: • Ocean floor (benthic life): Sponges, corals, barnacles, anemones, starfish, clams, snails, crabs • Free Swimming: squid, fish, turtles, seals, whales

 • Plankton: float near surface and are carried by currents • Phytoplankton: Photosynthetic

• Plankton: float near surface and are carried by currents • Phytoplankton: Photosynthetic producers • Zooplankton: Consumers • Form basis of food web for whole marine ecosystem

 • Zones of the Oceans • Intertidal Zone: – High tide: submerged –

• Zones of the Oceans • Intertidal Zone: – High tide: submerged – Low Tide: exposed to air & sunlight • Coastal Ocean (Littoral Zone) – Shallow, slopes to open ocean – Contains nutrients carried into ocean by rivers and streams • Open Ocean – Deep water, photic & aphotic zones – Most photosynthesis happens here • Deep Ocean – No sunlight, under high pressures – Food webs based on dead organisms that fall from above or on chemosynthetic organisms

 • Estuaries: – Saltwater meets freshwater (where river meets the sea) – Excellent

• Estuaries: – Saltwater meets freshwater (where river meets the sea) – Excellent nurseries to raise young aquatic wildlife (offers protection)

 • Freshwater Biomes – Ponds, lakes, streams, rivers, wetlands (swamps and bogs) –

• Freshwater Biomes – Ponds, lakes, streams, rivers, wetlands (swamps and bogs) – Provide most land animals with fresh drinking water – Many be nutrient rich or poor depending on amount of sediment