Colonization of Georgia ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS What were the
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Colonization of Georgia
ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS • What were the reasons for Georgia’s settlement? • Who contributed to the establishment of the Georgia colony? • How did each of the groups (Jews, Salzburgers, Highland Scots, and Malcontents improve, worsen, and overall change Georgia? • What are some examples of how Georgia transitioned from a Trustee Period to a Royal Colony? • What were the goods and services produced and traded?
STANDARDS SS 8 H 2 Analyze the colonial period of Georgia’s history. • a. Explain the importance of the Charter of 1732, including the reasons for settlement (philanthropy, economics, and defense) • b. Analyze the relationship between James Oglethrope, Tomochichi, and Mary Musgrove in establishing the city of Savannah at Yamacraw Bluff. • c. Evaluate the role of diverse groups (Jews, Salzburgers, Highland Scots, and Malcontents) in settling Georgia during the Trustee Period. • d. Explain the transition of Georgia into a royal colony with regard to land ownership, slavery, alcohol, and government. • e. Give examples of the kinds of goods and services produced and traded in colonial Georgia.
• The English established colonies on North America’s Atlantic coast throughout the 1600 s. The goals of the colonists varied, from religious mission, gaining wealth to bettering their lives.
SS 8 H 2 a – Explain the importance of the Charter of 1732, including the reasons for settlement (philanthropy, economics, and defense)
CHARTER OF 1732 • WHAT: Document to start a colony in Georgia • WHO: King George II, James Oglethorpe, 20 trustees, total of 115 colonists • WHEN: 1732 • WHERE: All land between Altamaha and Savannah Rivers to the south seas, Town of Savannah on Yamacraw Bluff • WHY: 1) protection from Spanish, French, and Native Americans, 2) provide resources for Britain, 3) populate the colony with “worthy poor”
Economics Philanthropy (Charity) Defense Religion = Unofficial Reason Why Was Georgia Created?
Who was Georgia named after? King George II In 1732, King George II created a charter allowing 21 Trustees, including James Oglethorpe, to create a Georgia colony and oversee it for 21 years.
By 1686, as the English colonies reached as far south as South Carolina, the Spanish retreated from the barrier islands to St. Augustine, Florida. Great Britain wanted a “buffer” colony to protect the English colonists from Spanish Florida (DEFENSE).
Great Britain wanted raw materials from the New World’s colonies, which it would manufacture into finished goods and sell to other countries. This was mercantilism (economics).
What did England want? (WRIST) • Wine • Rice • Indigo • Silk • Tobacco
SS 8 H 2 B • Analyze the relationship between James Oglethorpe, Tomochichi, and Mary Musgrove in establishing the city of Savannah at Yamacraw Bluff
Who Was James Oglethorpe? • Born in London in 1696 • Member of an Influential Family • Well Educated • Wealthy • Cared Greatly for People in Trouble • Tried to Find Ways to help them • Member of Parliament’s House of Commons
What products did James Oglethorpe promise to send back to England? silk, dyes, wine, spices, and semitropical fruit
Why did Oglethorpe want to form a new colony? (Philanthropy) • James Edward Oglethorpe and 20 other influential men in Great Britain made a plan to create a new colony for the working poor. They envisioned a colony for people who faced jail time for bad debts.
Why Oglethorpe? • His friend, Robert Castell, was sent to prison due to his inability to pay his debts. • He died after contracting small pox from his cell mate.
What did the colony look like? It included the land between the Savannah and Altamaha rivers and extended west to the Pacific Ocean.
Trustees Could Not. . . Be Given Money for their Work Own Land Hold Political Office
Lawyers WHO COULD NOT BECOME COLONISTS? Jews (initially) Slaves (Blacks) Papists (Catholics)
The Colony Belonged to the Crown!!!!
The First Georgia Colonists were…. Actually NOT debtors or the worthy poor
The First Georgia Colonists • Promised 50 acres of land, tools, and enough food for 1 year • If they could pay their own way, received 500 acres of land permission to take 10 indentured servants.
In Exchange. . They Agreed to. . . • Defend the colony against Spanish, French, or American Indian attack • Grow mulberry trees (silk worms live off these trees) • NOT sell their land (NO PLANTATIONS) • Pass land down to male heirs
Between 114 and 125 settlers sailed from England on the ship Ann in 1732.
Tomochichi Oglethorpe befriended Tomochichi, chief of the Yamacraw Indians.
Yamacraw Bluff • Tomochichi led the settlers to Yamacraw Bluff overlooking the Savannah River. This became the first settlement of the new Georgia colony.
Who was Mary Musgrove? • Daughter of a white trader and an Indian woman from a powerful family of the Creek nation. • Served as an interpreter between James Oglethorpe and the Native Americans. • She and her first husband, John Musgrove, established fur trade with the Creeks. • Instrumental in the peaceful founding of Savannah.
New Colonists Arrive in Georgia Forty original settlers died in the first year. In 1733, 42 Jews were allowed to settle in Georgia, including a much-needed doctor.
City of Savannah • Yamacraw Bluff became Savannah. • Oglethorpe designed the city. • Built using connected neighborhoods and squares – grids; 22 of 24 squares still exist • Each lot was of equal size. • The lots were arranged in a repeating pattern. • Based on European design
Soon, other colonists start coming too…
SS 8 H 2 C • Evaluate the role of diverse groups (Jews, Salzburgers, Highland Scots, and Malcontents) in settling Georgia during the Trustee Period
The Jews • First arrived 5 months after the Ship Ann • Allowed to settle because one of the 42 Jews was a doctor • Oglethorpe needed help to slow the yellow fever that had killed at least 20 • Another Jew was a winemaker • 14 Jews were offered land by Oglethorpe • Established Congregation Mickve Israel – oldest Jewish congregation in the South
The Salzburgers A group of German protestants were forced to leave Salzburg (located in present day Austria), which was controlled by the Catholics. They settled in a town called Ebenezer (Stone of Help), about 25 miles from Savannah.
Why did the Salzburgers move from their original location? They worked hard, spoke a different language, and stayed to themselves. Three years later, they moved and settled a new town called New Ebenezer (along the Savannah River) because the land at Ebenezer was marshy with poor soil for crops. They opposed slavery in the colony. Only group to have large scale success with silk.
Highland Scots • Recruited by Oglethorpe to provide defense for Georgia. • Very capable soldiers • Built a fort at Darien –near Fort King George
HIGHLAND SCOTS key points • Came to Georgia in 1736 from Scotland • Built the town / fort of Darien south of Savannah along the Altamaha River • Protected the Georgia colony from Spanish Florida – helped Oglethorpe push the Spanish out of Georgia in the Battle of Bloody Marsh • Changed from farming to cattle raising and harvesting timber • Opposed slavery in the colony
More Settlers. . . • Oglethorpe and Chief Tomochichi returned from a trip to England in 1736 with 300 more settlers. Religious leaders John and Charles Wesley also arrived in Georgia.
Georgia’s Colonists Become Discontent
South Carolina used slave labor to successfully grow rice, tobacco, and cotton on large plantations. Farmers in Georgia wanted the same “success” that South Carolina farmers had.
Regulations enforced by Oglethorpe did NOT allow: Rrum trade Rbuying large tracts of land Ruse of slave labor
Malcontents Those who complained about the policies of the Trustees. Arrived without assistance and did not have the same loyalty to the colony's founders (most were of Scottish descent). Could afford to purchase slaves and vast tracts of land felt the policies of the Trustees prevented them from realizing their economic potential.
War of Jenkin’s Ear The War of Jenkin’s Ear broke out between Great Britain and Spain in 1739. Several years earlier, Spanish sailors were said to have cut off the ear of Robert Jenkins, a British seaman, to serve as a warning to British ship captains smuggling goods off the Florida coast.
Oglethorpe welcomed the war! He wanted to invade Florida. Oglethorpe organized an army of about 2, 000 men with plans to capture Spanish forts in Florida. Spain’s well-organized militia met Oglethorpe and his men in a surprise attack and forced the Georgians, South Carolinians, and their Indian allies to retreat to St. Simon’s Island.
The Battle of Bloody Marsh • Assisted by the Highland Scots, Oglethorpe was able to defeat the Spanish. • They waited in the dense woods along the marshes of St. Simon’s Island took the Spanish by surprise. • Georgia’s southern border was protected.
Why was the vision of the trustees for Georgia never fulfilled?
Dissension caused many Georgians to move to places where they could basically live as they wished.
By 1742, Georgians were allowed to buy and sell rum. Slavery was introduced in 1750.
The colony named for King George II was changing.
Oglethorpe left the Georgia colony for England in 1743 and never returned.
The Post-Oglethorpe Era Begins
Three different men served as president of the Georgia colony from the time Oglethorpe left the colony until 1754: William Stephens Henry Parker Patrick Graham
In 1752, one year before the initial 21 -year charter was to expire, the trustees returned Georgia to the authority of King George II. It became a royal colony.
Trustee Colony 1732 - 1752 Royal Colony 1752 - 1776 Board of Trustees Ruled Colony King Ruled Colony Land Ownership Restricted to 50 acres, plus a town lot for colonists on charity Limits on Land Ownership Removed. Colonists could buy and sell land; women could inherit land; plantations began to grow rice, cotton, and No Established Church tobacco (Freedom of Religion Except for Catholics) Anglican Church (Church of England) Slavery Prohibited Slavery Allowed
Who became the first royal governor of Georgia? • Introduced the idea of self-government • Bicameral legislature was set up • Set up a court system • French and Indian War began while he was governor John Reynolds • Became unpopular because he tried to run Georgia by himself • Suggested moving Savannah • recalled at the end of 1756
2 nd Royal Governor =Henry Ellis • established a sound foundation for government • Set up a budget and regulated trade with the Indians • The colony made economic gains under him • He helped improve the relationship of the colony with the Creek Indians
3 rd Royal Governor = James Wright • efficient administrator • Most popular governor • Georgia grew in development • The end of the French and Indian War gave Georgia more land under his leadership • Was governor for 16 years
Colonial Leaders of Georgia Trustee Period Royal Period James Oglethorpe William Stephens 1733 -1743 Resident Trustee 1743 -1751 President Henry Parker 1751 -1752 Patrick Graham 1752 -1754 President John Reynolds 1754 -1757 Royal Governor Henry Ellis 1757 -1760 James Wright 1760 -1776 Royal Governor
What was Georgia’s Government like? st 1 Idea of self-government Bicameral (two houses: Common House of Assembly & Governor’s Council representing 8 parishes both church and British government district) Court System White landowners could vote
• In its first 20 years as a colony, Georgia’s population grew to 5, 500 people, of which one-third were slaves. Protestants from Europe found safe haven in Georgia.
• Treaties with Native Americans and victory over the Spanish settlers in Florida provided security to the Georgia colonists.
Early Georgia Colony Accomplishments • The Bethesda Orphans Home was established in Ebenezer. • The orphanage later became Bethesda House School, where many of Georgia’s early leaders were educated. • The Methodist Church was founded by John and Charles Wesley. • The first Sunday School in America is established by the Wesley brothers. • A successful court system was established and maintained. • Women were able to inherit property.