- Slides: 23
Colonial Rivalry: The French and Indian War
Colonial Rivalry n n By the mid-1700 s, England, France, Spain & the Netherlands were locked in a struggle for EMPIRE— To conquer and maintain the largest amount of foreign territory. In North America, the two biggest rivals were Britain and France… And each wanted to expel the other from the Continent.
An IMPERIAL power is one that. . . A. ) uses its military to maintain world peace. B. ) works with other nations in pursuit of common economic goals. C. ) expands by conquering new territory. D. ) tends to adopt "isolationist" policies.
The French in North America The French were primarily active in ONE activity: Trading for, trapping and selling FUR. French settlements were in INTERIOR of North America… And were mostly limited to solitary forts, deep in the wilderness. The French footprint was SMALL… And they generally got along well with the Indians… Who viewed French forts as convenient TRADING POSTS.
The British in North America The British economy was based on TWO THINGS: COMMERCE, and… AGRICULTURE. British settlements were on the COAST… And took the form of villages, towns and large CITIES. In order to farm, the British cleared LARGE AREAS of land… And were continually in CONFLICT with the Indians… With whom they had a relationship of MUTUAL HATRED.
What was the PRIMARY goal of French activity in North America? A. ) to challenge the British for control of Canada. B. ) to take part in the fur trade. C. ) to explore undiscovered territory. D. ) to seek religious freedom.
Which colonial power most depended upon peaceful relations with the Native Americans? A. ) the French. B. ) the British.
The Albany Plan of Union Benjamin Franklin was one of the first colonists to foresee the possibility of WAR… Between Britain and France. At the time, the British colonies had very little RELATIONSHIP with one another… And he suggested that they prepare for the coming conflict by BANDING TOGETHER. His plan, called the Albany Plan of Union… Called for an ORGANIZATION among the colonies… However, it was rejected by colonial voters. A political cartoon by Benjamin Franklin. What is he trying to say?
The Albany Plan of Union. . . A. ) was formed in opposition to British rule. B. ) contains the earliest seeds of the United States. C. ) exposed Benjamin Franklin's opposition to religious authority. D. ) caused the outbreak of the French and Indian War.
War Breaks Out n n n In 1754, the French constructed a fort in Western Pennsylvania… Territory that had already been CLAIMED by the British. George Washington was selected to lead an attack of the Fort… The attack FAILED… But it led to the OUTBREAK of the French and Indian War.
Who Fought in the French and Indian War? VS. + *The French and Indian War is called the Seven Years’ War in Europe.
The French and Indian War. . . A. ) was a struggle between the French and the Indians for control over the Ohio River Valley. B. ) united the empires of Britain and France against Indian aggression. C. ) was primarily a war over the limits of religious freedom in the colonies. D. ) was a struggle between the British Empire and Imperial France for control of North America.
Early British Defeats ► ► ► The French and the Indians won almost every early battle. One of the principal reasons is that the British fought in formation… Whereas the Indians and the French used guerilla war tactics. British Army soldiers believe this kind of fighting is COWARDLY… But their American colonial allies begin to think that it is simply more INTELLIGENT.
The British Turn the Tide ► ► Between 1758 and 1759, the British were able to use their superior navy to cut off French shipping… And the French army began to run out of supplies (bullets, rifles, etc. ) When this happened, many of the Indians changed sides and supported the better-armed British. Eventually, the British captured a major fort on the St. Lawrence River—which led the way to an attack on Quebec, the capital of New France.
The Fall of Quebec ► ► ► ► For the French to be DEFEATED, the British had to capture their CAPITAL, Quebec City. Quebec is a fortified city—surrounded by high walls… And in 1759, the British launched a DIRECT ATTACK… Which FAILED, and resulted in heavy losses. So they WITHDREW and LAID SIEGE—but needed to withdraw their warships before winter and the freezing of the harbor. Finally, in a desperate move, the British attacked through a nearly discovered secret path into the city… Whereupon the French evacuated, and met the British on a nearby battlefield… Where they LOST, and SURRENDERED their Capital.
The Treaty of Paris, 1763 n n France lost CANADA… And ALL territories in North America. The British traded CUBA to SPAIN for FLORIDA… SPAIN received all territory WEST of the Mississippi.
The Results of the War The British believe that the American colonists did not offer enough SUPPORT for the war effort… And the British government starts thinking about ways to squeeze MONEY out of the colonists. The British also begin to think that the Americans are uncultured, CRUDE, common and COWARDLY… The Americans think the British are SNOOTY, SNOBBISH, and STUPID. The two groups are like a married couple that has started to grow apart.
From an American perspective, the French and Indian war is important because. . . A. ) it led to British control of both Cuba and Louisiana. B. ) highlighted the cultural differences between American colonials and their British rulers. C. ) ensured that the colonial territories would secure total religious freedom. D. ) attracted worldwide attention to British mistreatment of the Native Americans.