- Slides: 33
Cognitive Learning Observational Learning Insight Learning
Cognitive Learning • Edward Tolman – Explored hidden mental processes – Developed the cognitive map • a mental representation in the brain of the layout of an environment and its features – developed unconsciously as you experience something • “cognitive maps are a way we use to structure and store spatial knowledge, allowing the "mind's eye" to visualize images in order to reduce cognitive load, and enhance recall and learning of information”
Latent Learning • Early experiments by Tolman and other psychologists demonstrated that learning takes place even before the subject reaches the goal and occurs whether or not the learner is reinforced. – Tolman proposed the concept of latent learning, which maintains that subjects store up knowledge even if this knowledge is not reflected in their current behavior because it is not elicited by reinforcers. – Later research suggested that latent learning is stored as a mental image, or cognitive map. When the proper time comes, the learner calls up this map and puts it to use.
Rats and mazes
Cognition and Operant Conditioning § Overjustification Effect § the effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do § the person may now see the reward, rather than intrinsic interest, as the motivation for performing the task
Cognition and Operant Conditioning § Intrinsic Motivation § Desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective § Extrinsic Motivation § Desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishments
Operant vs Classical Conditioning
Social cognitive learning or Observational learning • Observational learning – results from watching, and modeling and does not require the observer to perform any observable behavior or receive any observable reward – modeling – “Monkey see, monkey do” – Mirror neurons • found in frontal lobe adjacent to the motor cortex • fire when we observe something and allows for imitation, language, learning and empathy – Memes: culturally transmitted elements • ideas, fashions, habits • catch-phrases, hem lengths, traditions, books to read (current hot title? )
Observational Learning § Mirror Neurons § frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so § may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy
Bandura’s social cognitive theory • Four processes – Attention • observer must pay attention to what the model says or does – Memory • observer must store or remember the information so that it can be retrieved and used later – Imitation • observer must be able to use the remembered information to guide his or her own actions and thus imitate the model’s behavior – Motivation • observer must have some reason or incentive to imitate the model’s behavior.
Bandura and the Bobo Doll Experiment
Television and Observational Learning • Aggressive behavior imitated? – Power Rangers – Xena, Warrior Princess • “Does the reel world reflect the real world? ” – The Program – News: Columbine High School copycats • Video games? Music? • Desensitization? Statistics on pp. 344 -345
Television and Observational Learning
Impact on parenting? • “Children have big eyes” – “Do as I say not as I do” • Children raised in abusive environments many times become abusive themselves – spanking? • Anti-social models vs. pro-social models
Insight Learning • a mental process marked by the sudden and expected solution to a problem: a phenomenon often called the “ah-ha!” experience. – incubation effect – “sleep on it” • Culmination of past trial and error experiences, prior learning
Wolfgang Kohler • Insight Learning: type of learning or problem solving that happens all-of-asudden through understanding the relationships various parts of a problem rather than through trial and error. • Sultan the chimp • Video clip: Kohler Chimpanzees • Video clip: Pigeon, box, and banana
Biological Aspects of Learning • Instinctive Drift: tendency of an animal to revert to instinctive behaviors that interfere with a conditioned response. The concept originated with B. F. Skinner's former students Keller Breland Marian Breland when they tried to teach a raccoon to put tokens into a piggy bank.
• Gregory Kimble: “Just about any activity that an organism is capable of can be conditioned”. He was proven wrong many times. An animal’s capacity for conditioning is constrained at times by its biology. Environments are not the whole story. • For example: • Taste Aversion: Garcia:
John Garcia • Taste aversion is a learned response to eating spoiled or toxic food. When taste aversion takes place, you avoid eating the foods that made you ill. Taste aversion can be so powerful that sometimes you also avoid the foods that you associate with an illness, even if the food did not cause the illness
Learned Helplessness • Martin Seligman • The hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human being learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
Cognitive Learning • Learning by experience, touching, listening, or perceiving • Acquisition of problem-solving abilities and with intelligence and conscious thought.
Social and Emotional Learning • Social and emotional learning (SEL) is the process through which children and adults acquire and effectively apply the knowledge, attitudes and skills necessary to understand manage emotions, set and achieve positive goals, feel and show empathy for others, establish and maintain positive relationships, and make responsible decisions.
Superstitions • Learning and Superstitions: see clip on BF Skinner and superstitious behavior
Behavior Modifications • Biofeedback: a technique that involves using visual or auditory feedback to gain control over involuntary bodily functions. This may include gaining voluntary control over such things as heart rate, muscle tension, blood flow, pain perception and blood pressure.
Self-Control • separates us from our ancient ancestors and the rest of the animal kingdom, thanks to our large prefrontal cortices. Rather than responding to immediate impulses, we can plan, we can evaluate alternative actions, and we can refrain from doing things we'll regret. We can also take advantage of these innately human abilities by developing wisdom and willpower.
Problem Focused Coping • Taking Control – this response involves changing the relationship between yourself and the source of stress. Examples: escaping from the stress or removing the stress. • Information Seeking – the most rational action. This involves the individual trying to understand the situation (e. g. using the internet) and putting into place cognitive strategies to avoid it in future. Information seeking is a cognitive response to stress. • Evaluating the pros and cons of different options for dealing with the stressor.
Emotion-focused coping • involves trying to reduce the negative emotional responses associated with stress such as embarrassment, fear, anxiety, depression, excitement and frustration. This may be the only realistic option when the source of stress is outside the person’s control. • Drug therapy can be seen as emotion focused coping as it focuses on the arousal caused by stress not the problem.
External locus of control • The belief that events in one’s life, whether good or bad, are caused by uncontrollable factors such as the environment, other people, or a higher power.
Internal locus of control • The belief that events in one’s life, whether good or bad, are caused by controllable factors such as one’s attitude, preparation, and effort.