Cognitive Development Piaget Came up with stages of

  • Slides: 44
Download presentation
Cognitive Development

Cognitive Development

Piaget - Came up with stages of development for kids Schemas - Mental molds

Piaget - Came up with stages of development for kids Schemas - Mental molds - We take our experience and try to make sense of the world http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=o_Ekf. WS 2 Wks

Assimilation - When we have a new experience we interpret in terms of current

Assimilation - When we have a new experience we interpret in terms of current understandings - Any four legged animal is a dog

Accommodation - As we have new experience we adapt those experiences

Accommodation - As we have new experience we adapt those experiences

Piaget's stages: 1. Sensory motor - 0 to 2 - kids live in the

Piaget's stages: 1. Sensory motor - 0 to 2 - kids live in the present Object Permanence - To babies if something disappears it no longer exists - As they grow they will look for it, but give up easily - They are starting to learn that if something can't be seen it still exists Object Perm. Description

2. Pre-operational - About ages 2 -7 - They are too young to perform

2. Pre-operational - About ages 2 -7 - They are too young to perform mental tasks Egocentric - They cannot perceive things from another point of view - The moon and sun follow them around. http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Yt. LEWVu 815 o http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Oinq. Fgs. Ibh 0

Concrete Operational - About 6 -7 years old - They grasp conservation - The

Concrete Operational - About 6 -7 years old - They grasp conservation - The ideas that if even if something is not the same shape it contain the same amount

Formal Operational - Usually by age 12 Reasoning expands from concrete (just what is

Formal Operational - Usually by age 12 Reasoning expands from concrete (just what is experienced) to encompass abstract thinking (imagined realities and symbols) Review of the stages

Intelligence Affect Human Behavior Alfred Binet - When school became compulsory for French children

Intelligence Affect Human Behavior Alfred Binet - When school became compulsory for French children he devised a test to predict how well students will do in school - IQ test - Stanford Binet Tests IQ ='s Mental age/chronological age X's 100 -Gives http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=80 QXqqmaf. I 4&feature=related

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - WAIS - Gives both the verbal and non-verbal score

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - WAIS - Gives both the verbal and non-verbal score

Multiple Intelligence - The idea that we don't have an intelligence but multiple intelligence

Multiple Intelligence - The idea that we don't have an intelligence but multiple intelligence which are independent of others - Savants - People brilliant in for instance music but score low on intelligence tests http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Yuh. TFsi. Ec. MU http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=lk. DMa. J-w. Zm. Q

Emotional Intelligence (Social Intelligence) - The know how involved in comprehending social situations. Academic

Emotional Intelligence (Social Intelligence) - The know how involved in comprehending social situations. Academic aptitude is not necessarily related to Emotional Intelligence.

Emotional Intelligence has been measured by breaking it down into three parts 1. Perceive

Emotional Intelligence has been measured by breaking it down into three parts 1. Perceive emotions - Recognizing emotions conveyed by faces, musical excerpts, & stories 2. Understand emotions - Understanding how emotions change over time - Predicting emotions goleman emo int

3. Regulate emotions - Strategies one uses when facing various real-life dilemmas goleman empathy

3. Regulate emotions - Strategies one uses when facing various real-life dilemmas goleman empathy

Aptitude Test - Predict ability to learn a new skill College entrance exam Achievement

Aptitude Test - Predict ability to learn a new skill College entrance exam Achievement test - Reflects on what you have learned

Reliability - dependably consistent scores – Test is replicated by others - if the

Reliability - dependably consistent scores – Test is replicated by others - if the two scores agree you have a correlation

Validity - Extent to which a test actually measures what it is supposed to

Validity - Extent to which a test actually measures what it is supposed to measure - Does it tap the pertinent behavior - Does getting an A in my class predict how you will do in a college psych. class? http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=w. Jhf. KYz. Kc 0 s http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=u 3 k 7 lyk. TWTk

How does thinking Affect Human Behavior? - Concepts - Mental groupings of similar objects

How does thinking Affect Human Behavior? - Concepts - Mental groupings of similar objects events or people - Thinks about how many different chairs there are

Prototypes - Mental image or best example that incorporates all the features we associate

Prototypes - Mental image or best example that incorporates all the features we associate w/ a category All three sided figures are triangles

Mental Set - Tendency to approach a problem in a similar way - Especially

Mental Set - Tendency to approach a problem in a similar way - Especially a way that has been successful in the past

Problem-solving Methods - Human brains can come up w/ multiple ways to solve problems

Problem-solving Methods - Human brains can come up w/ multiple ways to solve problems 1. Algorithm - Step-by-step procedure that guarantees a solution

2. Heuristics - Speeding up the process - Especially if the step by step

2. Heuristics - Speeding up the process - Especially if the step by step process takes too long - If you can't solve a problem draw a picture

- Heuristics Availability - people predict the frequency of an event, based on how

- Heuristics Availability - people predict the frequency of an event, based on how easily examples can be brought to mind - The # of Shark attacks is few, but people have an irrational fear because of the news Sniper Heuristics 20 20

- Heuristics Representativeness - judge the probability of an event by finding a comparable

- Heuristics Representativeness - judge the probability of an event by finding a comparable known event and assuming that the probabilities will be similar. If something does not fit exactly into a known category, we will approximate with the nearest class available. Stereotyping https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=bg. ICLU bal. M 0

Obstacles to Problem Solving 1. Confirmation Bias - Our eagerness to search for info.

Obstacles to Problem Solving 1. Confirmation Bias - Our eagerness to search for info. that confirms our ideas https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=mg. CAa. Afr. V 50 https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Gyd-5 e. OId 28

2. Hindsight Bias - Finding out that something has happened makes it seem inevitable

2. Hindsight Bias - Finding out that something has happened makes it seem inevitable all along - People in the second tower on 9/11 should have evacuated - Being told a person picked the right suspect in a police line-up

Fixation - Inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective 3. Functional Fixedness

Fixation - Inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective 3. Functional Fixedness - Tendency to perceive the functions of objects as fixed and unchanging. https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=ksgaup 4 zqz 0 http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=5 t. S 9 a. Zh. B 9 cs&feature=related http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=C 2 YZn. TL 596 Q

4. Belief Bias - The tendency for our beliefs to distort our logic -

4. Belief Bias - The tendency for our beliefs to distort our logic - We have to problem-solve w/out bias. Premise 1: Robins have feathers Premise 2: Chickens are not robins Conclusion: Chickens do not have feathers

Belief Perseverance - Tendency to cling to our beliefs in the face of contrary

Belief Perseverance - Tendency to cling to our beliefs in the face of contrary evidence https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=h. Ug. Nv_EHx 7 Q&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=PSg. APh. QEFDw https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=H-CAcdta_8 I

Four Ways of Knowing - No single truth is ever sufficient, because the world

Four Ways of Knowing - No single truth is ever sufficient, because the world is not simple. We need to be aware of these four truths 1. Rationality and Irrationality - We tend to use heuristics and make snap judgments - Our explanation and judgments are vulnerable to preconceptions - watch out for self-fulfilling prophecies

2. Self-serving bias & self-esteem - A majority of us feel that we are

2. Self-serving bias & self-esteem - A majority of us feel that we are more ethical, socially skilled, and tolerant than our peers - We experience life through a self-centered filter

3. Attitudes and behavior - Our attitudes influence our behavior - Your attitude about

3. Attitudes and behavior - Our attitudes influence our behavior - Your attitude about smoking influences how susceptible we are to smoke - Is info. education or propaganda?

4. Persons and situations - We are influenced by social circumstances - Good people

4. Persons and situations - We are influenced by social circumstances - Good people do bad things if influenced Milgrim exper.

you just me

you just me

Stood Well View

Stood Well View

What is the smallest # of links that need to be opened and reordered

What is the smallest # of links that need to be opened and reordered to make a single continuous link of 15 rings?

What is the smallest # of links that need to be opened and reordered

What is the smallest # of links that need to be opened and reordered to make a single continuous link of 15 rings?

Draw four continuous straight lines (w/out lifting the pencil from the paper or the

Draw four continuous straight lines (w/out lifting the pencil from the paper or the chalk from the board), such that each dot has at least one line going through it.

Why was this not a normal problem you are presented with in school? Why

Why was this not a normal problem you are presented with in school? Why was it hard or easy? Who helped the most in the group or was the defacto leader?

Rote memorization Drill Conditioning Retention Transfer Motivation

Rote memorization Drill Conditioning Retention Transfer Motivation

What subjects can be taught with insight? What are the positives of insight learning

What subjects can be taught with insight? What are the positives of insight learning and what are the negatives?