Cloud Occurrence from Cloud SatCALIPSO Cloud Mask Data

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Cloud Occurrence from Cloud. Sat-CALIPSO Cloud Mask Data and Compare with Model Simulations Jay

Cloud Occurrence from Cloud. Sat-CALIPSO Cloud Mask Data and Compare with Model Simulations Jay Mace and Qiuqing Zhang 1. Briefly introduce Cloud. Sat-CALIPSO (CC) cloud mask data 2. Examine the vertical and horizontal distribution of cloud occurrence using the Cloud. Sat-CALIPSO cloud mask data. 3. Analyze GCM modeled results with the cloud fraction measured by CC.

Cloud. Sat / CALIPSO vs. Satellite Images Cloud. Sat and Calipso - horizontal global

Cloud. Sat / CALIPSO vs. Satellite Images Cloud. Sat and Calipso - horizontal global view - vertical structure Vertical Distribution Overlapped Layers Satellite Images - horizontal global view

Radar-Lidar Cloud Mask Data Cloud. Sat carries millimeter wavelength cloud profiling (CPR) radar. CALIPSO

Radar-Lidar Cloud Mask Data Cloud. Sat carries millimeter wavelength cloud profiling (CPR) radar. CALIPSO carries cloud-aerosol lidar. 2. 0 km Cloud. Sat and CALIPSO are maintained in tight orbital coordination so that they image the same volumes of the atmosphere within 15 s of one another. 1. 4 km Merge the CALIPSO lidar cloud mask with the Cloud. Sat cloud mask to create a radar-lidar cloud mask 2 B-Georpof-lidar product The new data set combines the capacity for millimeter radar to penetrate optically thick hydrometeor layers with the ability of the lidar to detect optically thin clouds. Output of 2 B-Geoprof-Lidar Product - Cloud Fraction - Cloud Layers - Layer Base, Layer Top - Layer Base Flag, Layer Top Flag - 1064 nm attenuated backscatter, - 532 nm total attenuated backscatter - 532 nm perpendicular attenuated backscatter - 532 nm extinction coefficient. - 532 nm total attenuated backscatter (high vertical resolution).

2 B Geoprof-Lidar Product: • Output referenced to Cloudsat footprint as specified in the

2 B Geoprof-Lidar Product: • Output referenced to Cloudsat footprint as specified in the 2 B Geoprof product. • Approach is to gather the lidar footprints that occur within or near the cloudsat footprint. • The primary output of this product is a height vs track array that reports the fraction of the lidar resolution volumes within the radar resolution volume that reports the occurrence of hydrometeors. • We also report the layer bases and tops of up to three layers in 1 d along track arrays 2. 0 km 1. 4 km

Radar-Lidar Cloud Mask Data

Radar-Lidar Cloud Mask Data

Compare to MODIS measurement Cloud. Sat/CALIPSO Cloud Cover -76% Modis Cloud Cover – 2%

Compare to MODIS measurement Cloud. Sat/CALIPSO Cloud Cover -76% Modis Cloud Cover – 2% less than CC

Cloud Coverage - July, 2006 to February, 2009 - Bases: 0 – 20 km

Cloud Coverage - July, 2006 to February, 2009 - Bases: 0 – 20 km - Thickness: 0 – 14 km Zonal Averaged Cloud Frequency Global Total Cloud Coverage

Cloud Coverage Thicknesses: 0 - 14 km Thicknesses: 3 - 6 km --- Low

Cloud Coverage Thicknesses: 0 - 14 km Thicknesses: 3 - 6 km --- Low Based Layer ( < 3 km ) Thicknesses < 3 km Thicknesses > 10 km

Mean Layer Thickness (Km) Mean Layer Thickness (km) - The largest mean layer thickness

Mean Layer Thickness (Km) Mean Layer Thickness (km) - The largest mean layer thickness of ITCZ is about 4 km - The mean thickness at middle latitude storm tracks is about 3 km

Fraction of all cloudy columns that are multi-layered The vertical structure of tropical cloud

Fraction of all cloudy columns that are multi-layered The vertical structure of tropical cloud systems are frequently (~ 40%) multilayered Fraction of all multi-layered columns that are low-based with high-based Over 60% of multi-layered columns are low-based with high-based

Animation of Zonal Averaged Cloud Occurrence

Animation of Zonal Averaged Cloud Occurrence

Web Page --- Cloud. Sat/CALIPSO Occurrence Statistics http: //meteo 04. chpc. utah. edu: 8080/qzhang/occ/occ.

Web Page --- Cloud. Sat/CALIPSO Occurrence Statistics http: //meteo 04. chpc. utah. edu: 8080/qzhang/occ/occ. jsp

Web Page --- Cloud. Sat/CALIPSO Occurrence Statistics http: //meteo 04. chpc. utah. edu: 8080/qzhang/occ/occ.

Web Page --- Cloud. Sat/CALIPSO Occurrence Statistics http: //meteo 04. chpc. utah. edu: 8080/qzhang/occ/occ. jsp

Comparing Cloud. Sat/CALIPSO Measurement with Model Results - Cloud. Sat/CALIPSO -- Three years measurement

Comparing Cloud. Sat/CALIPSO Measurement with Model Results - Cloud. Sat/CALIPSO -- Three years measurement (06/2006 – 02/2009) - Model Data are from CFMIP project : -- Ten years simulation results (1990 – 1999) -- Models: NCAR CCSM 3. 0 Model NASA GISS Model NCAR PCM 1 Model NOAA GFDL CM 2. 1 -- Community Climate System Model -- GISS model E 20/Russell -- Parallel Climate Model -- GFDL Coupled Climate Model In order to compare with model result, the statistical analyses of radar-lidar cloud occurrence are done with the same method as model output. --- Volumetric analysis method is used.

Compare to model results --- Total Clouds NCAR CCSM 3. 0 Model - Models

Compare to model results --- Total Clouds NCAR CCSM 3. 0 Model - Models are able to simulate the main systems - Totally, models simulate less clouds. Cloud. Sat/CALIPSO NASA GISS Model E 20/Russell NOAA GFDL CM 2. 1 NCAR PCM 1 Model

Compare to model results --- Low Clouds NCAR CCSM 3. 0 Model Low clouds:

Compare to model results --- Low Clouds NCAR CCSM 3. 0 Model Low clouds: 0 – 3 km - Models under estimate low clouds - CCSM: about 10% less than CC measurement. Cloud. Sat / CALIPSO NASA GISS Model (E 20/Russell) Latitude Averaged NCAR PCM 1 Model

Compare to model results --- Middle Clouds NCAR CCSM 3. 0 Model Middle clouds:

Compare to model results --- Middle Clouds NCAR CCSM 3. 0 Model Middle clouds: 3 – 6 km - Models under estimate the middle cloud - CCSM is good at low latitude. Cloud. Sat / CALIPSO NASA GISS Model (E 20/Russell) Latitude Averaged NCAR PCM 1 Model

Compare to model results --- High Clouds NCAR CCSM 3. 0 Model High clouds:

Compare to model results --- High Clouds NCAR CCSM 3. 0 Model High clouds: 6 – 14 km - CCSM & GISS are very good - PCM 1 over estimates high clouds Cloud. Sat / CALIPSO NASA GISS Model E 20/Russell Latitude Averaged NCAR PCM 1 Model

Compare to model results --- Very High Clouds NCAR CCSM 3. 0 Model Very

Compare to model results --- Very High Clouds NCAR CCSM 3. 0 Model Very High Clouds (TTL): 14 -20 km - Models under estimated Cloud. Sat / CALIPSO NASA GISS Model E 20/Russell Latitude Averaged NCAR PCM 1 Model

Compare to model results --- Seasonal, Low Clouds Spring Summer Fall Winter

Compare to model results --- Seasonal, Low Clouds Spring Summer Fall Winter

Compare to model results --- Seasonal, Middle Clouds Spring Summer Fall Winter

Compare to model results --- Seasonal, Middle Clouds Spring Summer Fall Winter

Compare to model results --- Seasonal, High Clouds Spring Fall Summer Winter

Compare to model results --- Seasonal, High Clouds Spring Fall Summer Winter

Compare to model results --- Seasonal, Very High Clouds Spring Summer Fall Winter

Compare to model results --- Seasonal, Very High Clouds Spring Summer Fall Winter

Summary • Cloud. Sat/CALIPSO provide unique data set to view the vertical and horizontal

Summary • Cloud. Sat/CALIPSO provide unique data set to view the vertical and horizontal structure of cloud layers. • Compare with model results: • Total Cloud Coverage: - Models are able to simulate the main systems. - Models under estimate total clouds. • Low clouds: 0 – 3 km Models under estimate low clouds CCSM: about 10% less than CC measurement. • Middle clouds: 3 – 6 km Models under estimate middle clouds. CCSM is good at low latitude. • High clouds: 6 – 14 km CCSM and GISS are very good PCM 1 over estimate the high clouds

Future Improvement • Problem of CALIPSO Vertical Feature Mask product : - mistakenly report

Future Improvement • Problem of CALIPSO Vertical Feature Mask product : - mistakenly report cloud at low altitude • An improved CALIPSO cloud mask data set are going to be used

Web Page --- Cloud. Sat/CALIPSO Occurrence Statistics http: //meteo 04. chpc. utah. edu: 8080/qzhang/occ/occ.

Web Page --- Cloud. Sat/CALIPSO Occurrence Statistics http: //meteo 04. chpc. utah. edu: 8080/qzhang/occ/occ. jsp