- Slides: 38
Close to Nature Forestry and Forest Policy Challenges in Europe Zvolen, Slovakia 14 -19 October, 2003 Ilpo Tikkanen, European Forest Institute Together with Olga Zyrina and EFI researchers
Close-to-Nature • What are the main trends and policy frameworks affecting close-to-nature forest management? • What are the main policy challenges ahead – and challenges forest research?
Contents • Close-to-nature at international forest policy agenda • Forest resource potentials in Europe – room for innovative policies? • Trends in forest products markets – pressure on economic viability? • MCPFE-process as European forest policy framework • EU – Forest Strategy and enlarging EU
“Close-to-nature” forestry has appeared in various forms at international forest policy agenda since 1990’s: • Forest principles / UNCED, 1992 • MCPFE Resolutions, especially Strasbourg (1990) and Helsinki (1993) • IPF/IFF – processes - biodiversity conservation - forest health and vitality - climate change and carbon issues - ecosystem management / landscape diversity
Policy output of international forest policy processes: • Consensus of the concept of sustainable forest management – Helsinki • International conventions (CBD, FCCC) Resolution 1 • MCPFE Declarations and Resolutions, Work Programmes • Development of Pan-European and national criteria and indicators to monitor the progress of implementation of SFM • Evolving national forest programmes • Revised national legislations
Conclusion: • Progress at policy level • Issues and policy failures are related to - Policy implementation - Policy co-ordination - Law enforcement - Financing of ecological sustainability / SFM
Room for innovative policies?
Annual fellings and annual increment in some European countries Source: UNECE/FAO (2000)
European total fellings
European average growing stock, historic and projected, current climate
Regeneration by different regeneration types in some European countries Source: UNECE/FAO (2000)
Trends in demand forest product markets – pressure on economic viability?
Bruce Michie, EFI
Bruce Michie, EFI
Bruce Michie, EFI
Bruce Michie, EFI
European political framework for Close-to-Nature forestry
Policy Issues at 4 th MCPFE Political commitments expressed and policy issues identified in Vienna Declaration and 5 Vienna Resolutions Overall policy aim: achieve balance between the economic, ecological, social and cultural roles of forests in the context of sustainable development(cf. H 1)
MCPFE issues cont. Strategic items and tools identified: • Forest policies to contribute to sustainable development, and subject to cross-sectoral impacts • Implementation phase in policy process: MCPFE- and IPF/IFF/UNFF commitments • Partnership arrangements and co-ordination of policies
Vienna Resolutions • Strengthen synergies for SFM through crosssectoral co-operation and national forest program • Enhancing economic viability of SFM • Preserving and enhancing the social and cultural dimensions of SFM in Europe • Conserving and enhancing biological diversity • Climate change and SFM in Europe
V 1: Cross-sectoral Co-operation and National Forest Programmes • “MCPFE Approach to National Forest Programme - principles based on IPF/IFF consensus - enhancement towards inter-sectoral policy co-ordination - work towards an improved understanding of cross-sectoral issues - challenge for research
V 2: Enhancing Economic Viability of SFM • Economic viability key pillar of SFM - key issue: how to finance the enhanced concept of sustainability? - especially challenging to implement in new EU member countries - challenge for inter-disciplinary socioeconomic and policy research
V 3: Preserving Social and Cultural Dimensions of SFM • Policy issue for both rural livelihoods and needs of urban societies - linked to economic viability, of special importance in new EU member countries - challenge for research: a need for Pan. European comparative study on social sustainability and related policy implications!
V 4: Conserving Biological Diversity • Policy issue: how to preserve - or enhance? Socio-economic consequences and scope for innovative policies? - challenge for research: impacts of various policy instruments on preserving biodiversity and enhancing forest management towards close-to-nature; evaluation of policy failures; cross-sectoral policy impacts
V 5: Climate Change and SFM • Inter-disciplinary research challenges: - socio-economic impacts (costs and benefits) of climate change - evaluation of policy impacts and policy options
EU – Forest Strategy: need for a reform?
The EU Forest Strategy • Legislative initiative from European Parliament in 1997 • Commission Communication on EU Forest Strategy • Member States adopted a Council Resolution on EU Forest Strategy in 1998
Principles • Decentralized approach - subsidiarity • Based on national policies and programmes • Forest-based commercial activities within the rules of open market economy
Aims of the Strategy • to better deal with the complexity of Community legislation influencing forest policies in Member States • horizontal issues related to forestry favour cross-sectoral approach; e. g. rural development • EU should have a single voice in international policy processes, such as IPF/IFF/UNFF • to strengthen internal co-ordination
Challenges for EU Forest Strategy • expectations have not been fulfilled • forest sector is a major economic sector in EU • but, environmental issues, such as biodiversity and climate change are dominating forest policies • need to further strengthen integrated regional and local level approaches to balance cross- sectoral issues
Impact of EU enlargement Forest Area 1997, mln. ha Growing Stock bln. m 3 Private Forest Owners EU 15: 113. 6 EU 15: 13. 4 EU 15: ~ 12 million New EU: 33. 4 New EU: 6. 26 New EU: ~ 4 million (+ 29%) (+ 47%) (Total 16 million)
EU Enlargement: Forest Policies at Cross-road in Europe? • Forest resource scenarios: increasing potentials provide scope for design of innovative forest policies • Expanding markets; increasing demand forest products • Restitution and privatization processes: new private forest owners • Foundations of forest policy-making changed
EU Enlargement (cont. ) • How to balance the demands on forest conservation, close-to-nature forest resource management, economic utilisation and social sustainability in market economy? • Financing of sustainable forest management? • Implementation of Pan-European and global commitments? • Cross-sectoral policy co-ordination in new political context?
Do We Need a New Forest Strategy for Europe? Policy options: regulative means, financial instruments, informational tools and development of institutions - policy mix of these Political reality: starting points of EU Forest Strategy; International commitments Conclusion: New political foci, new innovations and institutional solutions are needed!
Challenge for Pan-European Forest Strategy Joint Pan-European programme of EU Forest Strategy and MCPFE, focusing on informational policy means, capacity building, network strengthening and partnership arrangements - new inter-institutional solutions
A question remains …
Draft Convention on the Constitution of Europe (July 18, 2003) • Articles on Agriculture and Fishery Environment - no mentioning of forests or forestry - “natural resources” mentioned under Articles regarding environment • Implications for EU Forest Strategy?