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Climate change climate c Climate Change: How cities & towns can adapt Maryke van Staden Coordinator European Cities for Climate Protection (CCP) Campaign Climate & Air Team ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability
Contents - Context The Role of ICLEI - The CCP Campaign - The Reinforced Strategy for the European CCP Campaign - Conclusion -
Context: What is happening now? ð Temperature increase: ³ 10 hottest years on record since 1991. ³ Temperatures have risen by 0, 6° in the past century. ³ Oceans have warmed down to 3, 000 metres. ³ Mountain glaciers and snow cover have declined. ³ Arctic ice cover is shrinking (in depth and in extent). ³ Acceleration in sea level rise (10 - 20 cm in 20 th century) – may be related to increase in global mean temperatures ³ Lengthening of growing seasons. ð More extremes in weather patterns and changing precipitation: ³ More intense and longer droughts have been recorded. ³ More intense rainfall. ³ 150 million people affected by floods world-wide (7 million in 60 s). Source: IPCC 2007
Principal Environmental Problems
City Analogues Source: PRUDENCE (Christensen et al, 2002) EU 5 FP Had. RM 3 H-model
Growing Urban Population. . . l Urban population has doubled over last 50 years l World population by 2030 : 2/3 to live in cities l Consider: Impact on cities and towns - citizens, infrastructure, bio-diversity, food crops, . … Cities are part of the challenge and the solution! l Action to be taken: ameliorate and mitigate the impact of climate change (reduce and counter) + adaptation (improve resilience and adapt)
LOCAL VULNERABILITY: ¾ Land (physical conditions) ¾ Infrastructure ¾ Citizens ¾ Economy Consider how to avoid risk! What is the role of ICLEI in this context?
ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability Ø International local government association - Founded in 1990 at the UN in New York UNEP and the United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG) sponsored ICLEI at the beginning - 744 ICLEI member cities, representing more than 300 million citizens around the globe - Ø UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) - Official Observer status with the UNFCCC Lead organisation representing local governments at the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties (COP) -
Member Cities ICLEI exchange Member Cities movement ICLEI Activities Other institutions, organisations
Campaigns + Programmes in EUROPE Local Agenda 21 CCP Campaign Water Campaign Procura+ Campaign Environment Management Program International Training Centre 5 th European Conference on Sustainable Cities & Towns Seville, Spain - 2007
Cities for Climate Protection (CCP) Campaign TM World-wide movement of local governments that adopt policies and implement measures addressing mitigation, mitigation in support of climate protection, to achieve: - reductions in local greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs), - improved air quality, and - enhanced urban liveability. CCP International Status in 2005: • International: 800 local authorities from 29 countries • Europe: 162 participants from 17 countries • Addressing mitigation
CCP Campaign - Adaptation included • Increasing need recognised - how can cities/councils adapt to climate change and improve their resilience. • World Congress Cape Town (Dec. 2005): ICLEI amends CCP charter to include adaptation. ACTION started in 2006: ð Launched Reinforced Strategy for the European CCP Campaign. ð Adaptation a pre-requisite for all new participants. ð Consider involvement in projects: research, demonstration, resilience assessments, dissemination and sharing, … ð Other actions needed? Networking and partnerships! Consensus for action.
CCP Campaign - New Objectives • Improve awareness on climate change and the benefits of action in the areas of mitigation and adaptation • Encourage commitment and accelerated action in both areas. • Provide a framework to enable the integration of climate protection and resilience policies with actions at a local level. • Develop capacity to act (tools, training, exchange, projects). • Promote international cooperation among participants with different levels of local resources and local emissions, now also on adaptation.
5 -Milestone Methodology - Updated 1. Emissions inventory and forecast, plus a resilience assessment to determine vulnerable areas. 2. Set targets for emissions reduction and identify adaptation strategies in the following areas: - sustainable energy / buildings - urban design and land use planning - sustainable mobility - waste management 3. Develop and approve a Local Action Plan (mitigation and adaptation strategies and actions) 4. Implement the Local Action Plan. 5. Monitor and report progress.
Complex Issue: Partnerships Needed Slide courtesy Dr. Lasse Peltonen, Helsinki University of Technology, Centre for Urban and Regional Studies - Stockholm 2006 Relevant Projects: FINADAPT, SEAREG, ASTRA
Some Aspects to Consider Community planning and construction: - Secure decentralised (local) energy supply - Long-term urban planning (e. g. heat islands vs greening) - Quality and standards for construction - Drinking water / water drainage - Sewage systems - Transport systems è è Complex issues that will have an impact at community level Responsibilities? Who has to act? How to act? When to act?
Key Lessons from the CCP • • • A multi-stakeholder process is critical. Success built on cooperation and networking Some communities innovate, innovate others observe and learn Local governments need a voice, voice and a platform to express it. Like mitigation, adaptation response will be shared from national to local government. • Local government must contribute to the process and has to deal with the impacts. • Many different actors should be involved in process.
Reinforced Strategy - CCP Campaign in Europe OPPORTUNITY FOR CITIES: Open invitation to cities and towns in Europe (ambitious or new to the area). CCP internationally - each region has own process. Link to network, share experiences. NEW SUPPORT PLANNED 1. Resource Information Base on mitigation and adaptation measures for municipal and community areas to be developed. 2. Consider tools for local governments to address adaptation. 3. Thematical working groups in CCP Europe - adaptation discussions. Health can be a sub-group in this. However, funding is needed for effective action!
Cities for Climate Protection (CCP) Campaign in European Coordinator: Maryke van Staden [email protected] org www. iclei-europe. org/ccp
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