- Slides: 59
Let’s start with a simple sentence… I bought a book. This sentence has the three basic elements required of either a simple sentence or a clause: Subject = I Verb = bought Object = a book
Now, let’s add another clause … While my mother drank her coffee, I bought a book. Now we have a two clause sentence, but these clauses are not the same. The original clause I bought a book can stand on its own as a simple sentence. It expresses a complete thought by itself. Therefore, it is called an independent clause.
Independent Clause (IC) An independent clause is a S + V / O bject or C omplement or A dverbial unit that expresses a complete thought and could stand on its own as a simple sentence. Whether you find an independent clause by itself as a simple sentence or joined with other clauses, you will be able to identify it because it: �is a S+V/ unit that �expresses a complete thought
But what about the other clause? While my mother drank her coffee, I bought a book. If we only consider the first clause, while my mother drank her coffee, we are left with a question in our minds, “What happened while your mother drank her coffee? !” This clause can not stand on its own as a simple sentence. It requires another clause to a complete its meaning. Therefore, it is called an dependent clause.
Dependent Clause (DC) A dependent clause is a S + V / O bject or C omplement or A dverbial unit that does not express a complete thought and can not stand on its own as a simple sentence. A dependent clause must always be connected to an independent clause. You will be able to identify it because it: �is a S+V/ unit that �does not express a complete thought on its own
Dependent Clauses There are 3 different types of dependent clauses. • Noun Clause (NC) • Adjective Clause (Adj. C) • Adverb Clause (Adv. C)
Adjective, Adverb, & Noun Clauses Why are they important? They enhance writing; thus, it’s not so choppy. They allow for better fluency when reading; hence, better comprehension, and they break the monotony of simple sentences.
Subordinate clauses are a group of words that have a subject (noun/pronoun) AND predicate (verb) but does not convey a complete thought. ALL complex and compound-complex sentences have subordinate clauses. Subordinate clauses have specific names, thus they have specific functions. Basically, a subordinate clause will always be a subordinate clause, but we will be naming the subordinate clause as either adjective clause, adverb clause, or noun clause. Example: People are human beings, just like subordinate clauses are groups of words, and just as people are male or female, subordinate clauses are adjective clause, adverb clause, or noun clauses.
Sentence examples: 1. The desert is a place where most animals are not able to work. 2. Since I lost my lunch money, I can’t eat today. 3. Where many kids play is a place where pedophiles will linger.
Adjective Clause (Adj. C) • [S+V/] that acts like an adjective • Example: The story [that I am Ireading] is sad. am reading] S V relative pronoun This entire clause acts like an adjective, so it is an adjective clause. • Adj. Cs follow nouns • Often start with relative pronouns • but the relative pronoun can be omitted • if the clause has another noun to serve as the subject • EX: The story [I am reading]is sad.
Adjective Clauses � � � Relative pronouns introduce adjective clauses. There are 9 relative pronouns, but 7 are quite common. Most common Relative Pronouns: who, whom, which, whomever, whose, what, that -WHEN and WHERE can also be relative pronouns used to introduce adjective clauses BUT are most often subordinators. IT DEPENDS ON WHAT IT IS REFERRING TO. - If you take the adjective clause out of your sentence, your sentence will still be left with a main clause. Examples: 1. Allison likes pathways where she can see other people in case of an emergency. Where can she see other people in an emergency? 2. Many people are often found where they should not be. Where should they not be? – Q can’t be answered! What happens when people are where they should not be?
An adjective clause describes/modifies a noun or pronoun. Modifies - means it refers to. Just as an adjective modifies a noun or pronoun, an adjective clause acts in the same way, except it is a group of words acting as an adjective would! Example: 1. Thunderstorms, which are often quite unpredictable, seem to arise when the weather forecast least expects them. What is often quite unpredictable Yep, thunderstorms is the noun that the underlined adjective clause modifies.
REMEMBER � ALL sentences that have an adjective clause will be. . Complex = mc + sc OR Compound-Complex = mc + sc How do we know this? An adjective clause names a specific subordinate clause (SC)
Adjective Clause Practice Read each sentence, pick out the complete adjective clause, CIRCLE the relative pronoun and write out the noun or pronoun that your adjective clause modifies. � (a) The man who looked pale was very sick. � (b) He was sitting in the emergency room that was very crowded. � (c) The woman who you called will be here soon. � (d) He lived in chambers which had once belonged to his deceased partner.
Adverb Clauses …quite similar to adjective clauses, EXCEPT they modify/refer to a verb or verb phrase � Adverb clauses are introduced by subordinators. � Very common subordinators are: although, because, until, before, since, whenever, & after � When a subordinator/ adverb clause starts a sentence, the clause is ALWAYS followed by a comma
What is an Adverb Clause? A group of words which contains a subject and a finite verb that describes or adds to the meaning of a verb, an adjective and another adverb.
Unlike an adverb or an adverb phrase, an adverb clause has a subject and a verb ADVERB: They will leave soon. ADVERB PHRASE: They will leave (in a few minutes). ADVERB CLAUSE: S V They will leave when they are ready.
Definition… � An adverb clause is a subordinate (dependent clause) that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb clause tells where, when, how, why, to what extent or under � Like what condition.
Adverb Clause � Every adverb clause begins with a subordinate conjunction. � Some examples of subordinate conjunctions would be when, since, before, although, until… � Adverb clauses modify the main verb in the sentence, adjectives and other adverbs.
Adverb Clauses can also be found nearly anywhere in the sentence… …beginning, middle or end… EXAMPLES: � You may sit wherever you wish. (modifies the verb sit and tells where) � When spring sets in, many students go crazy. (modifies the verb go and tells when) � Sammy and Alexandra look as though they have some exciting news for us. (modifies the verb look, telling how S. and A. look)
More examples… � Happy because she made an A, Maia hurried to phone her mom. (modifies the adjective Happy, telling why Maia was happy. ) � Will can climb higher than I can. (modifies the adverb higher, telling to what extent or how much higher Will can climb) � If it does not rain tomorrow, we will go to the beach for class. (modifies the verb will go, telling under what condition we will go to the beach. )
Adverb Clause ◦ After he raised his rifle to his shoulder, he squeezed the trigger immediately. ◦ The student left the room before the bell rang. ◦ He enjoys camping in the woods more than you do
Conclusion � Adverb clauses must have a subject and a verb. � The first word in an adverb clause is the subordinate conjunction. � If the sentence begins with an adverb clause, use a comma after it.
Adverb Clause can be divided into: 1. Time 5. Result 2. Reason 6. Purpose 3. Concession 7. Place 4. Contrast 8. Manner
1. Adverb Clause of Time These clauses are introduced by when, whenever, while, as, before, after, till, until, since and as soon as,
1. Adverb Clause of Time � When he arrives, he will tell us the truth. � Mary was dancing while John was singing. � The train left as we arrived.
1. Adverb Clause of Time �I will stay with you until your mother comes home. � After he had got the money, he left home immediately. (For more examples, pls. refer to the grammar notes. )
2. Adverb Clause of Reason � These clauses are introduced by because, since, for and as, etc.
2. Adverb Clause of Reason � I was late because I could not catch the bus. � Since I was late, I took a taxi. � The manager dismissed Mary, for she was very lazy. � As the weather was bad, we cancelled the picnic. � Examples: � Everyone should see that film as it is very famous. � � Since I have not see King Kong yet, I will try to get a video of it. We like horror films because we enjoy being scared a little.
Adverbial Clauses of Reasons � Examples: � Thanks to the music, the film is very exciting. � � The Alien films are frightening because of the terrible monsters. The Phantom is frightening on account of the terrible defects in his face.
3. Adverb Clause of Concession These clauses are introduced by though, although, even though, no matter how , no matter what and as, etc.
3. Adverb Clause of Concession � Although � No he is small, he is very strong. matter how smart they are, they are required to do the revision. � No matter what the doctor did, the girl was still dead.
4. Adverb Clause of Contrast � These while clauses are introduced by whereas and
4. Adverb Clause of Contrast � We took the train whereas Pete drove. � While Tom is a good math student, Pam does well in English.
5. Adverb Clause of Result These clauses are always linked with so that, so + adj. / adv. + that and such + a + noun + that, etc.
5. Adverb Clause of Result �Tom was so weak that he could not run. �It was such a strange story that no one believed it.
6. Adverb Clause of Purpose These clauses are always linked with so that, in order that, for fear that, in case, etc.
6. Adverb Clause of Purpose � He arrived earlier, so that he would not be late. � They brought a lot of food for fear that they would be hungry during the trip. � She brought the credit card in case she did not have enough cash.
7. Adverb Clause of Place These clauses are introduced by where and wherever.
7. Adverb Clause of Place � Nobody � He knows where he has been to. travels wherever he likes.
8. Adverb Clause of Manner These clauses are introduced by as, as if and as though.
8. Adverb Clause of Manner � Please do as I have told you. �* He cries as if he were mad. �* He speaks as though he were the boss. * The subjunctive is used after as if and as though.
Noun Phrase A phrase is a group of words that doesn’t contain a subject and verb. A noun phrase is used as the subject or object in a sentence. � This book was published last year. phrase/subject) �I read this book. (noun phrase/object) (noun
Noun clauses function like nouns. They can be: subject complement object of prepositions
There are three types of Noun Clauses: noun clauses with that noun clauses with WH-word noun clauses with if and whether
Noun clauses with THAT can be used with all verbs mentioned except wonder I think that this book will be interesting. The word that can often be omitted. However it can not be omitted if it is in the subject position
The fact that is used as the object of the preposition We are curious about the fact that she is here today.
Noun clauses with Wh-words They have statement word order, even when they occur within questions Wh + subject + verb I don’t know what he is doing I wonder how he feels today. Where I put my book is a mystery.
Like a noun. . . �A noun clause can be a subject, a predicate nominative, a direct object, an indirect object, or an object of a preposition. � It can come at the beginning, middle, or end of a sentence.
Examples. . . � Which coat to choose is Mohammad’s dilemma. [subject] � The issue is how long should we wait [predicate nominative] � Give what you can to this worthy cause. [direct object] � Please send whoever is interested this questionnaire. [indirect object] � Please help yourself to whatever you need [object of preposition]
Words that can Introduce Noun Clauses � How � If � That � Whatever � When � Where � Whether � Which � Whoever � Whomever � Whose � Why
Writing Tip: Use Noun Clauses Sparingly � An overuse of noun clauses can make your writing sound stuffy and stilted. � Original: Whatever the grade may be is not the issue. � Less formal, less wordy: The grade is not the issue.
Identify Noun Clauses 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. You know that you’re the fastest runner on the team. Whoever wins tomorrow’s race will compete in the county meet. A better long jumper is what we need most on this team. Coach Lazdowski certainly knows when she can get the maximum effort out of us. What she does with this team is quite impressive.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Why Jimmy didn’t try out for the team is beyond me. Why can’t we just make whoever is qualified part of this team? Only the individual involved can decide whether he or she will try out for a team. Please give whoever tries out next year lots of encouragement. Sometimes, the problem is deciding which of two teams to join.
Words that introduce noun clauses � Noun clauses can be introduced by words that are also called subordinators AND relative pronouns (this can get tricky) Words in green- introduce noun clauses ONLY Words in blue – introduce noun & adj clauses Words in black – introduce noun & adv clauses How, however, if, that, whatever, when, where, whether, whichever, whom, whoever, whomever, whose, & why
Noun Clause (NC) -- continued • NCs can begin with “that” • “that” is a subordinating conjunction that • joins it to an IC • makes the clause it begins depend on the IC to complete its meaning. • “that” is often omitted by native speakers: • Example: thinkthat Spiderman is the best superhero. I Ithink Spiderman is the superhero.
Noun Clause A noun clause has a subject and verb. It is used as the subject or object in a sentence. A noun clause is a dependent clause that works like a noun. You can find it as a subject or object. �I noun clause read what she wrote. noun clause � What she wrote is interesting.
Noun Clauses Beginning with Question Words Wh- clauses begin with words like who, what, how, whenever, which, etc. �I need to explain what a noun clause is. noun clause � I don't know where Mary lives. � Tell me how old she is. � First, you need to explain what a noun clause is. � What is a noun clause? � Where does Mary live? � How old is she? questions