CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS
WHY TO BIOLOGISTS CLASSIFY ORGANISMS? Biologists have identified about 1. 5 million species and think there may be many more yet to be discovered. In order to study organisms it is easier if they are put into groups.
WHAT IS CLASSIFICATION? Classification is the process of grouping things into groups based on their similarities.
Why Classify? • Biologists use classification to organize living things into groups so that the organisms are easier to study. • Once an organism is classified then you know a lot about that organism. Example: If you know a crow is classified as a bird then you know it has wings, feathers and a beak.
HISTORY OF CLASSIFICATION Aristotle, 384 -322 BC Was a famous Greek scientist and philosopher He developed a classification system 2000 years ago. He classified organisms as either a plant or animal.
HISTORY OF CLASSIFICATION Carolus Linnaeus – 1700’s Swedish physician, botanist. Developed better system of classifying His system looked at more specific characteristics of organisms such as: size, shape, methods of getting food, & other physical traits.
• Linnaeus also developed a system for giving each organism a two-part scientific name. • His methods were so thorough he is considered the “father of taxonomy”.
TAXONOMY The Father of Taxonomy is the science of identifying, classifying, and naming living things. Carl von Linne changed his name to a Latin form: Carolus Linneaus
Literally means: “two name” “naming system” Each organism is given a unique 2 -part name. Ex: Puma = Felis concolor House cat = Felis domesticus Name is always underlined or italicized!
The first word in the name is its genus, a classification grouping that contains similar, closely related organisms. Ex: house cats’ and pumas’ genus is Felis Means: sharp, retractable claws, purrs The second word in the name is the species. Describes a distinctive feature Ex. Puma species is concolor Means “same color”
CLASSIFICATION TODAY Today we classify organisms based on: Physical traits Chemical makeup, and DNA Evolutionary history or phylogeny
WHY USE SCIENTIFIC NAMES? Each unique species is given a scientific name. A species is a group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile young. Bassaricyon neblina Olinguito the newest rare mammal species discovery – Aug. 2013
SCIENTIFIC NAMES Scientific names are written in Latin or Greek because: An organism may have many common names (in many different languages) The meaning of Latin words stay the same. Latin names are used worldwide by scientists so that the scientific name can be easily communicated between scientists.
WHY USE SCIENTIFIC NAMES? One species can have many common names. One large American cat is known as: Mountain lion, cougar, Florida Panther, painter, puma, catamount. But has only one scientific name: Felis concolor
WHY USE SCIENTIFIC NAMES? Common names are confusing. Ex: A starfish is not a fish, a prairie dog is not a dog, a sea cucumber is not a cucumber.
WHY USE SCIENTIFIC NAMES? Several species can have the same common name. Ex: A robin in America is not the same bird as a robin in England or Australia
EXAMPLES OF SCIENTIFIC NAMES (GENUS IS CAPITALIZED, SPECIES LOWER CASE, UNDERLINED OR IN ITALICS) a. b. c. d. e. f. Lion – Panthera leo or Panthera leo Lynx – Lynx lynx Gray wolf – Canis lupus Red wolf – Canis rufus Bobcat – Lynx rufus Family dog – Canis familiaris
LEVELS OF CLASSIFICATION – LINNAEAN TAXONOMY 1. After dividing all organisms into 6 kingdoms, scientists continue to classify until each individual species has been identified and given a scientific name. 2. There are 8 levels of classification. 3. The larger groups are more general and the smaller groups more specific.
THE EIGHT LEVELS OF CLASSIFICATION **Plants and fungi are classified by division instead of phylum . Domain - most general traits Kingdom Phylum* A mnemonic device: Class Daughter Order Katie Family Poured Genus Coffee Species – most specific traits On Father’s Good Shirt
CLASSIFICATION OF THE GRIZZLY BEAR DOMAIN Domain The most general of the levels. All living things grouped into 3 domains. Classification of the Grizzly Bear: Domain – Eukarya *Cells have nuclei and membrane-covered organelles.
KINGDOM Kingdom The 2 nd most general of the levels. All living things grouped into 6 kingdoms. Classification of the Grizzly Bear: Kingdom: Animalia *Multicellular, , heterotroph, move
PHYLUM Phylum- organisms from all kingdoms are sorted into smaller more specific groups called phyla. Grizzly Bear: Phylum Chordata. *Have a nerve chord that runs down back.
CLASS Class- organisms in all phyla are subdivided into smaller groups called classes Grizzly Bear: Class Mammalia: • Have fur, nurse young with mammary glands, most bear live young.
ORDER Order- organisms in all the classes are subdivided into smaller groups called orders. Grizzly Bear: Order Carnivora. Primary diet is meat.
FAMILY Family- each order is subdivided into smaller groups called families. Grizzly Bear: Family Ursidae. “Bears”, large body, stocky legs, long snout, shaggy hair, paws with non-retractible claws, short tail.
GENUS Genus- organisms in all families are sorted into genera Grizzly Bear: Genus Ursus. *Latin for bear, includes brown bears, black bears, and polar bears
SPECIES Species: Each genus is subdivided into smaller groups called species Grizzly Bear: Species: horribilis -means fearful Species Scientific Name: Ursus horribilis (Genus and species levels) is the most specific and descriptive level of classification. § There is only one type of organism at the species level. § The more classification levels two organisms share, the more characteristics they have in common and the more closely related they are.
CLASSIFICATION OF THE GRIZZLY BEAR
CLASSIFICATION OF THE DOMAIN JAGUAR Eukarya onca
HUMAN CLASSIFICATION Domain: Eukarya * Large brains, opposable thumbs, etc The Great Apes Latin for man Latin for wise man Modern human *Domain - Eukaryota
CLASSIFY THE FAMILY DOG Domain: ___________ Kingdom: ___________ Phylum: ____________ Class: _____________ Order: ____________ Family: ____________ Genus: ____________ Species: ____________
CLASSIFICATION OF THE FAMILY DOG Domain: EUKARYA Kingdom: ANIMALIA Phylum: CHORDATA Class: MAMMALIA Order: CARNIVORA Family: CANIDAE Genus: CANIS Species: FAMILIARIS Scientific name: Canis familiaris
DOMAIN – The First Level of Classification • All living things are first divided into 3 main groups called DOMAINS. • The characteristics used to classify are: • Cell type – prokaryote or eukaryote • Membrane covered organelles? ? ? • Number of cells
The 3 domains are: BACTERIA ARCHAEA EUKARYA (OR EUKARYOTA)
DOMAIN: BACTERIA • Prokaryotes –no nucleus • Distinct chemical make-up • All are unicellular • Examples: All common bacteria
DOMAIN: ARCHAEA • Prokaryotes, unicellular • Chemical make-up different from bacteria • Very ancient, live in extreme places (Extremophiles) Halophiles – Salt loving archaebacteria
DOMAIN: EUKARYA • Eukaryotes – cells have a nucleus • Cells more complex and generally larger • Most are multicellular • Some are unicellular • Examples:
After organisms are separated into domains, they are then placed into six kingdoms.
WHAT CHARACTERISTICS ARE USED TO CLASSIFY ORGANISMS INTO KINGDOMS? All organisms are divided into 6 major kingdoms based on four basic characteristics. a. Presence of a nucleus b. Number of cells c. How organisms obtain food: – autotrophs or heterotrophs d. Ability to move
SIX KINGDOMS OF LIVING THINGS Archaebacteria Eubacteria Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia **NOTE: Classification develops and changes over time as we learn more about living things.
ARCHAEBACTERIA & EUBACTERIA Bacteria are the oldest organisms on earth and are now divided into 2 kingdoms. The two kingdoms differ in chemical make-up. Other characteristics are similar.
KINGDOM: ARCHAEBACTERIA Prokaryotes: no nucleus Unicellular Autotrophs Some and heterotrophs move Live in places where most organisms cannot survive Called Extremophiles Methanogen
Examples -Halophiles – live in very salty water -Methanogens – produce methane (in sewage, bogs) -Thermophiles – live in hot springs
KINGDOM: EUBACTERIA Prokaryotes: no nucleus Unicellular Autotrophs and heterotrophs Some move Contains all other types of bacteria Live everywhere except extreme places
EXAMPLES: 3 BASIC SHAPES Cocci: Streptococcus Bacilli: E. Coli Spirilla: Borrelia Burgdorferi (Lyme’s) Both harmful and helpful
EXAMPLES OF ARCHAEA AND EUBACTERIA
EUKARYA – 4 KINGDOMS
KINGDOM: PROTISTA Eukaryotes - Nucleus Unicellular or simple multicellular Heterotrophs Some “the 3 and Autotrophs move: pseudopods, cilia or flagella junk kingdom” because it is so diverse. sub-groups: Animal-like, Plant-like, fungus-like
PROTISTA – PROTOZOA LIKE) (ANIMAL- Paramecium Amoeba Stentor
PROTISTA – ALGAE (PLANT- LIKE) Volvox Diatom Kelp (seaweed) Spirogyra
PROTISTS – FUNGUS-LIKE Scrambled Egg slime mold Pretzel slime mold
KINGDOM: FUNGI Eukaryotes - nucleus Most are multicellular Heterotrophs -Decomposers Do not move Examples: Molds, yeasts and mushrooms
KINGDOM: PLANTAE Eukaryotes All are multicellular Autotrophs Do – nucleus – Photosynthetic not move
Examples: Simple plants: moss, ferns Complex plants: Conifers, flowering plants
LARGEST TREE AND LARGEST FLOWER Giant Sequoia Redwood Rafflesia
KINGDOM: ANIMALIA Eukaryotes – nucleus Multicellular Heterotrophs - Consumers Most move Possess nervous systems that help them react to their surroundings
ANIMALIA – VERTEBRATES (BACKBONE)
10. DICHOTOMOUS KEYS An aid in identifying unknown organisms requiring the choice of one of two descriptions at each step
SAMPLE DICHOTOMOUS KEY 1 A Object has only straight lines, go to 2 1 B Object has curved line, go to 4 2 A Color is blue-- Azul calamus 2 B Color is not blue, go to 3 3 A Object has four equal sides--Quadratis rufus 3 B Opposite sides of object are equal-- Rectangulo crudus 4 A Object has one continuous curving line, go to 5 4 B Object has curved and straight lines--Azul undo 5 A Object is red--Ovalado rufus 5 B Object is green--Orbis crudus
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