- Slides: 41
Classification of Living Things
WHY CLASSIFY? Identifies and names species ________________ Groups organisms in a logical manner ________________
REMEMBER BIODIVERSITY is the total of _______ all the living things in an ecosystem. ________ SPECIES A ______ is a population of organisms share similar characteristics that ____________ and can breed with each other. ____
TAXONOMY ________ = branch of biology that names and groups organisms
What is the point in naming and organizing organisms into groups with biological significance? It helps make sense _______ of relationships! An animal with feathers BIRD. . . ? Image from: http: //www. flagsplus. com/flags/21778_bird_collage. jpg
A good classification system: places organisms in a group with ______________ other organisms that are similar Uses names that are UNIQUE Can CHANGE as new data is discovered Shows RELATIONSHIPS of organisms
(300 B. C. ) The first person to group or classify organisms was the Greek teacher & philosopher _____ ARISTOTLE more than 2000 years ago.
Aristotle’s system By: Riedell PLANTS: _____ Based on kind of stem _____ ANIMALS: Based on where _____ they lived _____
Problem: common names can vary Example: mountain lion _______ puma _______ catamount _______ cougar _______. . . are all names for the same animal universally accepted scientific name By using a _______________, scientists can be sure they are discussing the same organism
Common names vary Chipmunk (English) ____ German Streifenhornchen (______) Italian Tamia (______) Spanish Ardilla listada (______)
Common names can be misleading Ex: jelly. FISH isn’t a fish, A ____ sea. HORSE is! but a _____ Sea cucumber plant sounds like a _____ animal but… it’s an ______!
Common names can be misleading In the United Kingdom, BUZZARD refers to a hawk ____ In the United States, BUZZARD refers to a ____ vulture ______.
th 19 By mid century, scientists recognized that using common names was confusing. Scientists agreed to use Latin and Greek to give a ______ single name to each species.
EXAMPLE: RED OAK Quercus foliis obtuse-sinuatis setaceo-mucronatis “oak with deeply divided leaves with deep blunt lobes bearing hair-like bristles” PROBLEMS: Names too hard and long to remember! Different scientists described different characteristics.
________ Carl Linnaeus comes to the rescue! Swedish botanist who devised a new classification system This system is still used today! (1707 -1778)
Linnaeus’s System Organisms are grouped in a hierarchy of 8 different taxonomic levels TAXONS OR _____
Domain (Did) Kingdom(King) Phylum(Philip) Class(Come) Order(Over) Family(For) Genus(Good) Species(Soup)
Binomial Nomenclature • The process of assigning each organism a two-part scientific name
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE (2 -name naming system) 1 st name = ________ Genus – Always CAPITALIZED 2 nd name = _________ species –Always lower case UNDERLINED or Both names are _______ ITALICS typed in ______.
GENUS = group of closely related species GENUS = _____ Ursus (Includes many kinds of bears) Ursus arctos Ursus maritimus Ursus americanis unique to each kind of bear SPECIES = ___________
Binomial nomenclature Humans Homo sapiens
Levels of Taxonomy (based on morphology) Eukarya Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Hominidae Homo sapiens
Task: To complete the “Classification of Living Things” chart *Text Pg. 618 Eubacteria Archeabacteria
Crash Course Biology Part 2 Use this video clip to add to your chart!
*Classification *organizing living things in a way that makes sense *Bacteria *Archaea *Eukarya *Pro *Euk *unicellular *mostly multi *Auto or Hetero *cell walls w/pepti & live in all enviros except extreme *cell walls w/o pepti & live in extreme enviros *4 kingdoms *organisms are grouped according to their characteristics and phylogeny (evolutionary history)
*Classification *grouping organisms in logical manner. Domain is the broadest category/taxa *Bacteria *Archaea *Eukarya *Prokaryotes *eukaryotes *unicellular *uni or multi *auto or hetero *cell walls w/o pepti; can live in harsh enviros *made up of 4 kingdoms *cell walls with pepti *Organisms are grouped by physical characteristics and evolutionary history
MODERN EVOLUTIONARY CLASSIFICATION
Modern Classification • Linnaeus classified organisms according to their morphology (how they looked). • Today, we still use morphology, but we also have DNA evidence as well as…
Phylogeny • The study of an organism’s evolutionary history
Cladistics • A method of hypothesizing relationships among organisms Examples: – Phylogenetic Trees – Cladograms *We study Phylogeny by using Cladistics.
*Node = common ancestor
Video Clip: Cladograms You. Tube: Bozeman Science Cladograms
Constructing a Cladogram How can methods of transportation be organized using a cladogram?
Draw on your white board! (don’t write the word “label”)
Directions: • Complete the cladogram by filling in each method of transportation: – Bike – Car – Motorcycle – Airplane – Foot