Classification of Living Things NOTES A. Classification Vocabulary 1. Taxonomy: The branch of science that deals with naming and classifying organisms.
2. Autotroph or Producer: an organism that makes its own food using sunlight energy and making glucose. Also some bacteria make food by digesting minerals & chemicals. 3. Heterotroph or Consumer: an organism that cannot make its own food and must eat other organisms in order to get energy.
4. Decomposers: organisms that break down dead organisms into simpler substances, thereby returning important materials to the soil and water.
5. Hosts: organisms that provide a home and/or food for a parasite. 6. Parasite: an organism that survives by living on or in a host organism and causes harm to that organism.
7. Symbiosis: interacting organisms in which at least one creature benefits. 8. Mutualism: a type of symbiosis in which both partners benefit from the relationship.
9. Sexual reproduction: two parents combine their genetic material to produce a new organism. Offspring are different from both parents. 10. Asexual reproduction: involves only one parent and produces offspring that are identical to the parent.
B. Groups or levels for classifying living things: Kingdom Phylum is a subgroup of Class Order is a subgroup of Family Genus species
C. Writing the scientific name of a living thing using a word processor: Genus name species name (e. g. Homo sapiens) D. If you write it by hand then underline: Genus name (e. g. Homo sapiens) species name
E. Six Kingdoms of Living Things Two bacteria kingdoms. Both are single celled Prokaryotes (no nucleus). They reproduce asexually: 1. Archaebacteria: live in extreme environments. They are autotrophs that eat minerals for energy. 2. Eubacteria: live in a variety of environments, but not extreme environments. They contain both autotroph & heterotroph versions.
Typical structure of a Bacterium cell:
General Bacteria Info: Shapes: 1. Spherical-shaped 2. Spiral-shaped 3. Rod-shaped 4. Irregular-shaped
3. Protists: single cell organisms w/ a nucleus (Eukaryotes; e. g. amoeba, diatoms, and slime molds). Three Types of Protists: a) Animal-like: Heterotrophs they eat other organisms for energy. Amoeba
b) Plant-like: Autotrophs - they make their own food using the sun’s energy. Diatoms Brown Algae Euglenoid
c) Fungus-like: Heterotrophs they eat other organisms for energy. They break large chemicals into smaller ones, therefore they are decomposers. Slime mold Water mold
Three more kingdoms to discuss: 4. Fungi: unicellular to multicellular heterotrophs (includes yeasts, molds & mushrooms). Made of eukaryotic cells with a cell wall. They use spores to reproduce. Fairy Ring Mushroom
Plants & animals reproduce sexually. However, some creatures from each have both asexual & sexual life cycles. 5. Plants: unicellular to multicellular autotrophs (includes mosses, ferns and seed plants). Made of eukaryotic cells with a cell wall.
6. Animals: multicellular heterotrophs (includes those with & without backbones). Made of eukaryotic cells.
Bacteriophage Virus Structure:
Virus life cycle when infecting a bacteria cell.
Stages of Virus Infection: 1. Virus attaches to Bacterium. 2. Virus inserts genetic code into Bacterium. 3. Virus genetic code splices into Bacterium code.
4. New viruses are manufactured by Bacterium. 5. Viruses burst from Bacterium, which destroys it.