- Slides: 18
Classification of Living Things
All living things are classified into 3 domains • Archaea-very primitive forms of bacteria • Eubacteria-More advance forms of bacteria • Eukaryota-all life forms with eukaryotic cells including plants and animals.
Eukaryota domain is divided into several groups called KINGDOMS • Moneran-Unicellular, Prokaryotic, Autotroph or Heterotroph—This kingdom is now broken up into 2 domains!! – Bacteria, microscopic organisms • Protist-Organism with just one eukaryotic cell, Autotroph and Heterotroph, Motile – Protozoan, Ameba, Algea, mostly microscopic • Fungi-Multicellular, heterotroph, specialized cell wall – Mushrooms, molds
• Plants-multicellular, autotroph (by way of photosynthesis), sessile – Trees, grasses, flowers, moss, ferns • Animals-multicellular, motile, specialized tissue/organs/organ systems, heterotroph – Snails to birds to mammals (humans), sponges, worms, insects, fish, anphibians, reptiles Full Classification of Human: Domain Eukarya Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Sub Phylum Vertebrata Class Mammalia Order Primates Family Hominidae Genus-Homo Species-Sapian
Today’s classification system is based mostly on similarities in _______& ______. • Structure • Evolutionary relationships
ORGANISM GROUP NAME HUMAN CHIMPANZEE HOUSE CAT LION HOUSEFLY KINGDOM Animalia Animalia PHYLUM Chordate Arthropoda CLASS Mammal Insect ORDER Primates Carnivora Diptera FAMILY Hominidae Pongidae Felidae Muscidae GENUS Homo Pan Felis Musca SPECIES sapiens troglodytes domestica leo domestica Scientific Name Homo sapiens Pan troglodytes Felis domestica Felis leo Musca domestica
• NOTES : – 1) all 5 of the organisms are classified as animals because they are multicellular, have eukaryotic cells, are heterotrophic, & capable of moving (motile) – 2) the human, chimp, cat & lion have enough similar characteristics that they are put in the same phylum & in the same class too – 3) the defining characteristics of each subgroup (as you go down a column) become more & more specific. the shared characteristics of the members of a kingdom are broad, the shared characteristics of members of a species are very specific. – 4) in order for two organisms to be in the same "small" group, they must also be in all the same "big" groups above it. for example : if two organisms are in the same ORDER, they must be in the same class, phylum & kingdom. even though the cat & the housefly have the same species group name (domestica), they CAN'T BE the same species because they are not in the same genus, family, order, etc. In fact, that last group name (species) doesn't really mean anything all by itself. The correct, full species name is the organism's two-part scientific name (see #5). – 5) REALLY IMPORTANT : every organism is given a scientific name which consists of its genus name (1 st) & species name (2 nd). This is called binomial nomenclature (bi-nomial = 2 -names) & is attributed to Carolus Linnaeus (remember him ? ). so a human's scientific name is Homo sapiens, a lion's is Felis leo, a house cat's is Felis domesticas, etc. In a SCIENTIFIC NAME, the genus name should be capitalized & the species name lowercase, & both should be either italicized or underlined. – 6) the closer the evolutionary relationship between two organisms, the more groups they have in common. so of the 5 in this chart, the cat & lion are most closely related (they are classified together in the first 6 groups). A human is more related to a chimp (4 groups in common) than to a lion (only 3 common groups).
KINGDOM NAME KEY CHARACTERISTICS EXAMPLES MONERA UNICELLULAR PROKARYOTIC BACTERIA BLUE-GREEN ALGAE PROTISTA MOSTLY UNICELLULAR EUKARYOTIC SOME COLONIAL AMEBA PARAMECIUM EUGLENA ALGAE FUNGI MOSTLY MULTICELLULAR EUKARYOTIC HETEROTROPHIC SESSILE MUSHROOMS MOLDS & MILDEWS YEAST (unicellular) PLANT MULTICELLULAR EUKARYOTIC AUTOTROPHIC SESSILE CELL WALLS made of CELLULOSE MOSS FERNS FLOWERING PLANTS BUSHES TREES ANIMAL MULTICELLULAR EUKARYOTIC HETEROTROPHIC MOTILE SPECIALIZED SENSE ORGANS INSECTS JELLYFISH, HYDRA CRABS FISH BIRDS LIONS, TIGERS, BEARS (oh my !)
Yes, I know it looks like a lot to remember. But who said this wasn't going to require you to WORK ? Here a couple generalizations that may help you keep some of that table straight : • 1) only 1 Kingdom has organisms that are • • prokaryotic (the Moneran Kingdom) 2) For the most part, any organism that is unicellular & eukaryotic is a Protist (one exception is YEAST, a unicellular fungus) 3) Fungi have the same characteristics as Plants except that Fungi are heterotrophic & Plants are autotrophic, and their cell walls are different 4) Animals are the only motile multicellular group 5) Most of the autotrophic organism we study have chlorophyll which gives them a greenish appearance. So being "green" is an important clue --- it indicates they are autotrophic (ex: blue-green algae, plants).
WHAT KINGDOM IS IT ? ! For each description or example, name the kingdom it belongs in. Your choices are : animal, plant, fungi, protist or moneran. Jot down all your answers & then we will look at the answers. 1. one-celled organism, eukaryotic, has structures for moving 2. green, multicellular, sessile, cellulose cell walls 3. an Ameba 4. multicellular, eukaryotic cells, obtains food from its environment, flies 5. colony of eukaryotic cells, autotrophic 6. sessile, heterotrophic, multicellular 7. eukaryotic cells with cell walls composed of cellulose 8. unicellular, no nucleus visible 9. yeast 10. bacteria
ANSWERS!! 1. protist 2. plant 3. protist 4. animal 5. protist 6. fungus 7. plant 8. moneran 9. fungus 10. moneran
KINGDOM MONERA PROTIST FUNGI PHYLUM CHARACTERISTICS EXAMPLE(S) blue-green algae autotrophic blue-green algae bacteria heterotrophic Streptococcus Staphylococcus algae (plant-like) autotrophic "sea weeds" diatoms Spirogyra protozoa (animal-like) heterotrophic Ameba Paramecium the thing to remember about this kingdom is that most are multicellular (mushrooms, molds, mildew) and a few are unicellular (yeast). don't worry about specific phyla names. : ) bryophyte nonvascular plants (small & simple) mosses liverworts tracheophyte vascular plants trees flowering plants ferns coelenterates tentacles hollow body cavity PLANTS annelids arthropods worms with segmented bodies exoskeletons jointed legs ANIMAL chordates have a notochord (nerve chord) & usually a backbone hydra jellyfish earthworm grasshoppers lobsters spiders humans & other mammals birds reptiles amphibians fish
Use the table to answer the following questions: • • • 1) The presence of vascular tissue for transporting liquids is characteristic of : A. ferns B. mosses C. slime molds D. algae 2) Which protists contain chlorophyll (a green substance necessary for photosynthesis) ? A. Ameba B. algae C. moss D. Paramecium 3) The animal-like protists are : A. algae B. Annelids C. protozoa D. yeast 4) Euglena is a eukaryotic single-celled organism that possesses chlorophyll but has no cell wall. It also has a mouth & swims using a structure called a flagellum. It is most reasonable to classify Euglena as a : A. plant B. animal C. protist D. blue-green algae 5) Low growing plants without vascular tissues are classified as : A. bryophytes B. algae C. tracheophytes D. mushrooms
• 6) Two animals are the same species of they : • • A. live in the same environment B. show a very close resemblance C. can mate & produce fertile offspring D. eat the same foods 7) Bacteria & blue-green algae belong to which kingdom ? A. animal B. plant C. fungi D. monera 8) Which group are NOT invertebrates (animals without backbones) ? A. coelenterates B. chordates C. annelids D. arthropods 9) Which animal is correctly matched with its phylum ? A. whale - coelenterate B. honey bee - arthropods C. spider - chordate D. snake - annelid 10) Whales have hair, are warm-blooded, & nurse their young. Therefor they are classified in the same class with : A. fish B. lobsters C. tigers D. turtles
• • • t. HE Co. RRect An. SWer. S are IN GREEN 1) A. ferns - vascular plants are classified as TRACHEOPHYTES, ferns are an example B. mosses - are NONVASCULAR C. slime molds - are FUNGI D. algae - are PROTISTS 2) A. Ameba - are animal-like protists (PROTOZOA) B. algae - chlorophyll is a clue for photosynthesis (autotrophic nutrition), alage are the plant-like (autotrophic) protists C. moss - are PLANTS, not protists D. Paramecium - are animal-like protists (PROTOZOA) 3) A. algae - are the plant-like protists B. Annelids - earthworms C. protozoa - proto- (protists), -zoa (zoo = animal) D. yeast - unicellular fungus 4) A. plant - multicellular B. animal - multicellular C. protist - since it is "unicellular" it has to be either a moneran or a protist, since its "eukaryotic" Euglena is classified as a protist D. blue-green algae - unicellular but prokaryotic (a MONERAN) 5) A. bryophytes - ALL NONVASCULAR plants B. algae - are PROTISTS, not plants C. tracheophytes - are VASCULAR plants D. mushrooms - are FUNGI
• • • 6) A. live in the same environment B. show a very close resemblance C. can mate & produce fertile offspring - a definition to MEMORIZE D. eat the same foods 7) A. animal B. plant C. fungi D. monera - a fact to MEMORIZE 8) A. coelenterates - invertebrate (hydra, jellyfish, coral) B. chordates - animals with nerve chords ("notochords") protected by backbones C. annelids - invertebrate (segmented worms - earthworm) D. arthropods - invertebrate (all INSECTS, lobsters, spiders, crabs) 9) A. whale - coelenterate B. honey bee - arthropods (INSECTS are one CLASS within the arthropod phylum) C. spider - chordate D. snake - annelid 10) A. fish - scales, no hair, lay eggs in water, cold-blooded B. lobsters - an INVERTEBRATE (arthropod) C. tigers - have hair, warm-blooded, nurse young (a MAMMAL, like the whale) D. turtles - scales, no hair, lay eggs on land, cold-blooded