Classification of Bacteria Differentiation of Bacteria by Cell

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Classification of Bacteria Differentiation of Bacteria by Cell Wall Composition

Classification of Bacteria Differentiation of Bacteria by Cell Wall Composition

Bacteria Cell Walls The cell wall is the outer most layer of the cell.

Bacteria Cell Walls The cell wall is the outer most layer of the cell. In many cases the cell wall comes in direct contact with the environment. Function Protection of the cell Maintains the shapes of the cell Maintains the osmotic integrity of the cell

Bacterial Cell Walls Provide structure and shape and protect cell from osmotic forces Assist

Bacterial Cell Walls Provide structure and shape and protect cell from osmotic forces Assist some cells in attaching to other cells or in eluding antimicrobial drugs Not present in animal cells, so can target cell wall of bacteria with antibiotics Bacteria and archaea have different cell wall chemistry

Bacterial Morphology

Bacterial Morphology

Morphology Relation to Cell Wall Composition Consider the three morphological distinctions of bacteria. Which

Morphology Relation to Cell Wall Composition Consider the three morphological distinctions of bacteria. Which of these shapes would need to be flexible in order to exhibit the shape of the bacterium?

Bacteria Cell Walls Bacteria are classified into two groups based on the composition of

Bacteria Cell Walls Bacteria are classified into two groups based on the composition of their cell walls. The two groups are known as gram positive and gram negative.

Bacterial Cell Walls ◦ Most have cell wall composed of peptidoglycan ◦ Peptidoglycan is

Bacterial Cell Walls ◦ Most have cell wall composed of peptidoglycan ◦ Peptidoglycan is composed of sugars, NAG, and NAM ◦ Chains of NAG and NAM attached to other chains by tetrapeptide crossbridges Bridges may be covalently bonded to one another Bridges may be held together by short connecting chains of amino acids

Gram Positive Cell Wall Gram-positive cell walls Relatively thick layer of peptidoglycan Contain unique

Gram Positive Cell Wall Gram-positive cell walls Relatively thick layer of peptidoglycan Contain unique polyalcohols called teichoic acids Some covalently linked to lipids, forming lipoteichoic acids that anchor peptidoglycan to cell membrane Retain crystal violet dye in Gram staining procedure; so appear purple

Gram Positive Cell Wall The gram positive cell wall is referred to as a

Gram Positive Cell Wall The gram positive cell wall is referred to as a peptidoglycan layer and is composed of alternating subunits of two carbohydrates: n-acetyl muramic acid and n-acetyl glucosamine.

Gram Positive Cell Wall The gram positive cell wall is referred to as a

Gram Positive Cell Wall The gram positive cell wall is referred to as a peptidoglycan layer and is composed of alternating subunits of two carbohydrates: n-acetyl muramic acid (NAM) and n-acetyl glucosamine (NAG).

Gram Negative Cell Wall ◦ Gram-negative cell walls Have only a thin layer of

Gram Negative Cell Wall ◦ Gram-negative cell walls Have only a thin layer of peptidoglycan Bilayer membrane outside the peptidoglycan contains phospholipids, proteins, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) May be impediment to the treatment of disease Appear pink following Gram staining procedure

Gram Negative Cell Wall The gram negative cell wall consists of two distinct layers.

Gram Negative Cell Wall The gram negative cell wall consists of two distinct layers. The outer most layer is referred as the outer membrane and is composed of lipopolysaccarhides (LPS). The second layer a peptidoglycan layer that is homologous to a gram positive cell wall.

Comparison of Gram Negative and Gram Positive Cell Walls

Comparison of Gram Negative and Gram Positive Cell Walls

Application of Cell Wall Difference Why does the gram stain work? How is the

Application of Cell Wall Difference Why does the gram stain work? How is the differences of cell wall types used to distinguish the different bacterial types?

Application of Cell Wall Difference Scenario You have been give a slide with a

Application of Cell Wall Difference Scenario You have been give a slide with a mixture of gram positive (coccus) and gram negative bacteria (spirochete). Think about the gram stain procedure as it relates to the cell wall differences. What would the end result of each step of the gram stain be for each of the bacteria types?

Application of Cell Wall Difference Gram Staining Procedure Reagent Function Crystal Violet Primary Stain

Application of Cell Wall Difference Gram Staining Procedure Reagent Function Crystal Violet Primary Stain Iodine Mordant Acetone-Alcohol Decolorizer Safranin Counter Stain Results

Results of the Gram Stain

Results of the Gram Stain

Conclusion Why does the gram stain work? Because of the differences of cell wall

Conclusion Why does the gram stain work? Because of the differences of cell wall composition.

Conclusion The gram positive cell wall is referred to as a peptidoglycan layer and

Conclusion The gram positive cell wall is referred to as a peptidoglycan layer and is composed of alternating subunits of two carbohydrates: n-acetyl muramic acid and n-acetyl glucosamine. The gram negative cell wall consists of two distinct layers. The outer most layer is referred as the outer membrane and is composed of lipopolysaccarhides (LPS). The second layer a peptidoglycan layer that is homologous to a gram positive cell wall.

Comparison of Gram Negative and Gram Positive Cell Walls

Comparison of Gram Negative and Gram Positive Cell Walls

Prokaryotic Cell Walls Archaeal Cell Walls ◦ Do not have peptidoglycan ◦ Contains variety

Prokaryotic Cell Walls Archaeal Cell Walls ◦ Do not have peptidoglycan ◦ Contains variety of specialized polysaccharides and proteins ◦ Gram-positive archaea stain purple ◦ Gram-negative archaea stain pink