Classification and the Five Kingdoms Activity 1 Button
Classification and the Five Kingdoms
Button Activity Explore: 10 min. INSTRUCTIONS: n In teams, continuously divide your set of buttons into two groups until there is only one button in each group. n Organize your poster like a flow chart (See next slide) n At the end, share your classification poster.
Individual Button Sub-Group Individual Button Individual Button Mini. Group Individual Button Sub-Group Group Buttons
Why is a classification scheme necessary? n How do we organize? n Think of things that we classify every day… n Classification – the arrangement of objects, ideas, or information into groups – makes things easy to find, identify, talk about and to study.
Important Points YOU will be able to: n Describe the main characteristics of each of the five kingdoms. n Discuss the importance of classification in the science world. n Explain how things are given names in the system of binomial nomenclature. (e. g. Use an example of a ‘genus’ and ‘species’ name. )
History of Classification
Aristotle (384 to 322 BC) n n n Greek philosopher Divided organisms into two groups – plants and animals Divided animals into blood and bloodless Also divided animals into 3 groups according to how they moved – walking, flying or swimming (land, air , or water) His system was used in the 1600’s; looked more at ‘behavior’
Carolus Linnaeus (1707 -1778) Hey, let’s get these animals organized! Swedish botanist, zoologist and physician n 1735 publication of Systema naturae n – Linnaean taxonomy Binomial system of nomenclature – two names. n Divided living things into two “kingdoms” n System looked more at similarities in ‘form’ n
When Linnaeus developed his system of classification, there were only two kingdoms, Plants and Animals. But the use of the microscope led to the discovery of new organisms and the identification of differences in cells. A two-kingdom system was no longer useful. Today the system of classification includes five kingdoms.
Quiz – Are dolphins and whales a type of fish? n Yes or No
The Five Kingdoms: Plants, Animals, Protists, Fungi, and Monera (Archaebacteria and Eubacteria). How are organism placed into their kingdoms? · Cell type, complex or simple · Their ability to make food · The number of cells in their body
Activity 2 You have 10 minutes to research your assigned kingdom! (See handout) http: //www. online-stopwatch. com/eggtimer-countdown/
Plants You are probably quite familiar with the members of this kingdom as it contains all the plants that you have come to know – flowering plants, mosses, and ferns. Plants are all multicellular and consist of complex cells.
In addition plants are autotrophs, organisms that make their own food. With over 250, 000 species, the plant kingdom is the second largest kingdom. Plant species range from the tiny green mosses to giant trees!
Animals The animal kingdom is the largest kingdom with over 1 million known species. All animals consist of many complex cells. They are also heterotrophs.
Monera -Archaebacteria In 1983, scientists took samples from a spot deep in the Pacific Ocean where hot gases and molten rock boiled into the ocean form the Earth’s interior. To their surprise they discovered unicellular (one cell) organisms in the samples. These organisms are today classified in the kingdom, Archaebacteria are found in extreme environments such as hot boiling water and thermal vents under conditions with no oxygen or highly acid environments.
Monera - Eubacteria Like archaebacteria, eubacteria are complex and single- celled. Most bacteria are in the EUBACTERIA kingdom. They are the kinds found everywhere and are the ones people are most familiar with. Eubacteria are classified in their own kingdom because their chemical makeup is different. Most eubacteria are helpful. Some produce vitamins and foods like yogurt. However, some eubacteria, like streptococcus, can make you sick with strep-throat!
Fungi Mushrooms, mold and mildew are all examples of organisms in the kingdom fungi. Most fungi are multicellular and consists of many complex cells. lichen mushroom Fungi are organisms that biologists once confused with plants, however, unlike plants, fungi cannot make their own food. Most obtain their food from parts of plants that are decaying in the soil. This makes them saprophytes (saprophytic). Budding Yeast cells
Protists Slime molds and algae are protists. Protists include all microscopic organisms that are not bacteria, not animals, not plants and not fungi. Most protists are unicellular. Protists are not classified in the Archaebacteria or Eubacteria kingdoms because, unlike bacteria, protists are complex cells. diatom paramecium amoeba
Graphic Organizer – Answer Key Classification and the Five Kingdoms AUTOTROPHS/ HETEROTROPHS SIMPLE CELLS/ COMPLEX CELLS UNICELLULAR/ MULTICELLULAR EUKARYOTIC COMPLEX CELLS MULTICELLULAR AUTOTROPHS Flowering Plants, mosses, ferns EUKARYOTIC COMPLEX CELLS MULTICELLULAR AUTOTROPHS All animals PROKARYOTIC SIMPLE CELLS UNICELLULAR AUTOTROPHS Methanogens; halophiles; Thermo-acidophiles (live in extreme conditions) PROKARYOTIC BOTH UNICELLULAR BOTH Clostridium; streptococcus; E. coli; Bacillus anthracis EUKARYOTIC COMPLEX CELLS MOSTLY MULTICELLULAR SAPROPHYTIC; HETEROTROPHS Bread mold; mushrooms; lichens; budding yeast cells (cell wall, nucleus, no chloroplasts) KINGDOM PROKARYOTIC/ EUKARYOTIC PLANTAE ANIMALIA MONERA Archaebacteria Eubacteria FUNGI (Saprophytic - Absorbs nutrients from decaying matter) PROTISTA EUKARYOTIC COMPLEX CELLS MOSTLY UNICELLULAR; MULTICELLUAR BOTH EXAMPLES Amoeba; paramecium; diatoms; algae; slime molds (has a nucleus)
Card Sort Activity n With your team, use your advance organizer to re-create the chart using the card sorts!
Classification & Nomenclature n Classification: sorting things into categories. Categories can be grouped into larger groups. – Example: M&M’s, Hershey Kisses, jelly beans, and gumdrops = all different kinds of candy. – Could be put into categories “Chocolate candy” and “Fruit-flavored candy”.
Rank n More inclusive categories have higher ranks and less inclusive categories have lower ranks. As we go down this list, the categories become less inclusive and of lower rank:
Application to Living Things: n Each category has it’s own basis for organization an each (regardless of rank) is a taxon: n Kingdom-Division-Class-Subclass-Order -Family-Genus-Species You can remember the order the system comes in with: Keep ponds clean or frogs get sick.
The formula for nomenclature: n “Genus” name tells the organisms closest relatives – capital letter, italicized or underlined. n The specific epithet tells which “species” it is – lower case, italicized or underlined. (Example: Genus species) n The authority who first described the organism.
Example binomial nomenclature: n Callirhoe involucrata (Torr. )Gray – Callirhoe is the genus name – Involucrata is the specific epithet. – (Torr. ) Gray is the authority, the person(s) who work(s) you would consult to find out why a plant is named and classified as it is. In this case, (Torr. ) indicates that the plant’s first describer. Gray indicates the person responsible for placing the plant in its current classification.
Felis domesticus The scientific name for a common house cat is Felis domesticus. 1. What is the species name? domesticus 2. Felis is an example of a(n) Kingdom b. Class c. Order d. Genus a.
Example: Humans Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Primates Family: Hominidae Genus: Homo Species: H. sapiens Binomial name Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758
Classification Pyramid 5 3 6 7 1 4 2
Quiz – Are dolphins and whales a type of fish? n Yes or No n Kingdom: ? ? ? n Family: Cetacea
Final Challenge! What is the genus and species of your organism?
Genus and species - ? ? ? 1. Box Jellyfish: 2. Green Sea Turtle: 3. Broad-winged Hawk: 4. Pink Frogmouth: 5. Bluntnose Sixgill Shark: 6. Black Mangroves:
Genus and species - Findings 1. Box Jellyfish: Chironex fleckeri 2. Green Sea Turtle: Chelonia mydas 3. Broad-winged Hawk: Buteo platypterus 4. Pink Frogmouth: Chaunax pictus 5. Bluntnose Sixgill Shark: Hexanchus griseus 6. Black Mangroves: Avicennia germinans
Ideas for your Students n See examples of things you can use to classify with elementary/middle school students.
Q & A n What are your thoughts about classification and the five kingdoms?