Classical Civilization China Chapter 2 I Classical China

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Classical Civilization: China Chapter 2

Classical Civilization: China Chapter 2

I. Classical China established a dynastic pattern of strong political institutions, followed by periods

I. Classical China established a dynastic pattern of strong political institutions, followed by periods of decline and fall. 1. Zhou Dynasty (c. 1029 -258 BCE) 2. Fell- resulting in a period- Warring States

Three Philosophies Confucianism Daoism Legalism

Three Philosophies Confucianism Daoism Legalism

Confucianism 551 -478 BCE Stressed relationaships 5 Relationships Ruler- Subject Husband-Wife Parent-Child Sibling-Sibling Friend-Friend

Confucianism 551 -478 BCE Stressed relationaships 5 Relationships Ruler- Subject Husband-Wife Parent-Child Sibling-Sibling Friend-Friend Believed that if these are balanced- all will run smoothly Not really spiritual

Daoism Balance The nature Dao Peace comes by balancing the dao Yin and yang-

Daoism Balance The nature Dao Peace comes by balancing the dao Yin and yang- opposing forces. Daoists believe that all nature is in balance. Harmony with nature brings peace. “Go with the flow”

Legalism Humans are naturally evil Gov should rule with authoritarian force.

Legalism Humans are naturally evil Gov should rule with authoritarian force.

#2 Qin Dynasty 221 -202 BCE Shi Huangdi, overthrew Zhou Political created centralized control

#2 Qin Dynasty 221 -202 BCE Shi Huangdi, overthrew Zhou Political created centralized control with provincial bureaucracy Increased Chinese territory Began census, standardization axels Brutal rule high taxes and persecution of intellectual led to downfall Technology and Culture built Great Wall written language Confucianism unfavored silk production

#3 Han Dynasty Political: Peasant revolt at emperor’s death; lasted until 220 CE Retained

#3 Han Dynasty Political: Peasant revolt at emperor’s death; lasted until 220 CE Retained centralized admin of Qin extended territory formalized bureaucracy with Confucian training Han formalized bureaucracy with civil service tests only open to wealthy land owners Economy: Han supported economy with organized production, price regulation, public works

Trade/Economy in the Han trade expanded during Han; focused on providing luxury goods to

Trade/Economy in the Han trade expanded during Han; focused on providing luxury goods to wealthy, some food exchange between regions, even extra regional trade along Silk Roads Considerable disdain for greed, merchants Diffusion of ideas with India, ME, Europe

 Religion in the Han: Confucian philosophy: Han supported. Confucius Legalism emerged from Qin,

Religion in the Han: Confucian philosophy: Han supported. Confucius Legalism emerged from Qin, Han, believed man need authoritarian state to control evil nature Daoism, Buddhism become strong with lower classes, after fall of Han; stressed humility, frugality; believed politics, learning irrelevant

Han Art and Intellectual Life Literary tradition based in Five Classics, Confucian ideas Daoism

Han Art and Intellectual Life Literary tradition based in Five Classics, Confucian ideas Daoism promoted: Art with careful detail, poetry absence of unifying religion didn’t promote monument building Science Innovation key function of culture focused on discovering natural harmony; accurate calendar, most planets, early seismology, anatomy, hygiene

IV. Han Social Issues Society structured on Confucian hierarchy, SPAM Scholars Peasants Artisans Merchants

IV. Han Social Issues Society structured on Confucian hierarchy, SPAM Scholars Peasants Artisans Merchants Tight family organization, filial piety, strict control of emotions, family center, model of orderly harmonious hierarchy- Which philosophy? Restriction of Women: arranged marriages, women’s power held with emotional control of husbands, sons, becoming mother’s in law; eventually results in foot binding Considerable disdain for greed, merchants