Classical China 600 BCE to 600 CE Chapter

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Classical China 600 BCE to 600 CE Chapter 8 AP World History Notes “The

Classical China 600 BCE to 600 CE Chapter 8 AP World History Notes “The Unification of China”

Cultural Traditions China Kong Fuzi (Confucius) – Confucianism Laozi – Daoism

Cultural Traditions China Kong Fuzi (Confucius) – Confucianism Laozi – Daoism

The State of China Chaos Growing violence Disharmony and disunity “Age of Warring States”

The State of China Chaos Growing violence Disharmony and disunity “Age of Warring States” These issues led many to find solutions to China’s problems

The Legalist Answer Founder of Legalism = Han Fei Legalists viewed humans as inherently

The Legalist Answer Founder of Legalism = Han Fei Legalists viewed humans as inherently stupid and immoral Legalists believed in rules and laws that were strict, clearly spelled out, and enforced through a system of rewards and punishments

The Legalist Answer Legalism = used by Emperor Qin Shihuangdi during the Qin Dynasty

The Legalist Answer Legalism = used by Emperor Qin Shihuangdi during the Qin Dynasty to restore unity and order to China

The Confucian Answer Confucius = from an aristocratic family in northern China Became a

The Confucian Answer Confucius = from an aristocratic family in northern China Became a teacher Believed in ethics = good conduct and moral judgment

The Analects A short book of the teachings of Confucius Compiled by his students

The Analects A short book of the teachings of Confucius Compiled by his students after his death

The Confucian Answer The moral example of superiors Relied on unequal relationships within society

The Confucian Answer The moral example of superiors Relied on unequal relationships within society Ruler over subject Parent over child Husband over wife Old over young

Emphasis on Filial Piety piety = respect for one’s elders and ancestors

Emphasis on Filial Piety piety = respect for one’s elders and ancestors

Civil Service Exams Confucianism = incorporated into China’s civil service exams during the Han

Civil Service Exams Confucianism = incorporated into China’s civil service exams during the Han Dynasty Chinese men had to apply Confucian values to specific situations in these tests

The Daoist Answer Founder = Laozi Focus of Daoism = living in harmony with

The Daoist Answer Founder = Laozi Focus of Daoism = living in harmony with nature Urges withdrawal from society and entrance into a world of nature

The Dao “The Way” Universal force that guides all things

The Dao “The Way” Universal force that guides all things

Yin and Yang 2 opposing forces present in all of nature YIN = cool,

Yin and Yang 2 opposing forces present in all of nature YIN = cool, dark, female, submissive YANG = warm, light, male, aggressive

A Changing Patriarchy: Case of China Chapter 6 - Notes

A Changing Patriarchy: Case of China Chapter 6 - Notes

A Changing Patriarchy: Case of China Han Dynasty Elite think more patriarchal Clearly define

A Changing Patriarchy: Case of China Han Dynasty Elite think more patriarchal Clearly define and linked to Confucianism Yin and Yang Opposites became unequal Yang Superior principle Masculine Related to heaven, rulers strengthen, rationality and light Yin Lower principle Feminine Related to the earth, subjects, weakness, emotion, and darkness

A Changing Patriarchy: Case of China Confucian Texts Two ideas that summarize the place

A Changing Patriarchy: Case of China Confucian Texts Two ideas that summarize the place of women “Men go out, women stay in” Men political/public roles Women domestic/in the home “Three obediences” Women first subordinate to her father Then to her husband Then to her son

A Changing Patriarchy: Case of China Ban Zhou Women writer and court official Wrote

A Changing Patriarchy: Case of China Ban Zhou Women writer and court official Wrote “Lessons for Women” 3 Customs when a girls is born Placed below the bed – lowly and weak Required to humble herself in front of others Play with broken pottery – primary duty to be industrious Responsible for ancestor worship in the home “Men go out, women stay in”

Classical Chinese Empires

Classical Chinese Empires

Classical Dynasties • Zhou 1046 to 256 BCE • (Includes Warring States 425 to

Classical Dynasties • Zhou 1046 to 256 BCE • (Includes Warring States 425 to 221 BCE) • Qin 221 to 207 BCE • Han 202 BCE to 25 CE

The Mighty Qin v. Conquered the Zhou v“First Emperor” = Qin Shihuangdi

The Mighty Qin v. Conquered the Zhou v“First Emperor” = Qin Shihuangdi

The First Emperor v United much of the nation under 1 strong government v

The First Emperor v United much of the nation under 1 strong government v Organized the empire into military districts -- 1 official per district v Created a universal system of weights & measures v Standardized coins, created a uniform writing system & set up a law code throughout China v Used forced labor to dig canals & build roads

Terra Cotta Army How cool!

Terra Cotta Army How cool!

Terra Cotta Army

Terra Cotta Army

The Great Wall of China v Built in northern China to prevent attacks from

The Great Wall of China v Built in northern China to prevent attacks from the north v Connected a series of walls that already existed v Took several years & over 300, 000 Chinese peasants --> thousands died v Stretches over 4, 000 miles

The Great Wall of China

The Great Wall of China

The Great Wall of China

The Great Wall of China

Qin’s Strict Rule v. Imposed a tax on landowners v. Appointed only educated men

Qin’s Strict Rule v. Imposed a tax on landowners v. Appointed only educated men as officials to run his government v. Censored & burned books v. People couldn’t write about the past

Legalism v. Legalists = scholars that opposed Confucian ideas v. Legalism = philosophy that

Legalism v. Legalists = scholars that opposed Confucian ideas v. Legalism = philosophy that rejected Confucian idea of learning by example and emphasized strict laws and harsh punishments

Qin’s Strict Rule Shocking! v Subjects saw Qin as a cruel tyrant – v.

Qin’s Strict Rule Shocking! v Subjects saw Qin as a cruel tyrant – v. Nobles = mad he destroyed aristocracy v. Peasants = mad about the forced labor v. Scholars = mad about book burning 210 BCE = Qin died & dynasty soon came to an end Lasting Legacy = new ways of organizing & unifying the nation

The Glorious Han v. Ruled China for more than 400 years until 220 AD

The Glorious Han v. Ruled China for more than 400 years until 220 AD v. Used same forms of centralized power as the Qin, but not as harsh v. Rivaled Roman Empire in its power & achievement

The Glorious Han v. Reached its peak during the reign of King Wudi v.

The Glorious Han v. Reached its peak during the reign of King Wudi v. Extended the empire v. Sent armies against nomadic invaders v. Interested in the West -especially the Roman Empire

The Glorious Han v. Trade routes to the West developed v. Major trade route

The Glorious Han v. Trade routes to the West developed v. Major trade route = Silk Road v. Linked East & West v. Allowed traders to exchange Chinese silk for Middle Eastern & European products

The Silk Road

The Silk Road

Pax Sinica v. Chinese Peace = 400 year period of prosperity & stability v.

Pax Sinica v. Chinese Peace = 400 year period of prosperity & stability v. China fed its population by storing grain during times of plenty & selling it when harvests were poor

Advancements in Farming & Transport v. Veterinary medicine v. Complex irrigation systems v. Advancements

Advancements in Farming & Transport v. Veterinary medicine v. Complex irrigation systems v. Advancements in fertilizing crops v. New canals v. Better roadways

Inventions v Silk v Paper v Gunpowder v Wheelbarrow v Printed books v Suspension

Inventions v Silk v Paper v Gunpowder v Wheelbarrow v Printed books v Suspension bridge v Compass v Iron drill bits

Pax Sinica v Talented, intelligent people were appointed to government jobs -- NOT family

Pax Sinica v Talented, intelligent people were appointed to government jobs -- NOT family v. They were given tests to see if they were qualified v. Evolved into civil service system = a system that allowed anyone with ability to attain public office --> unfortunately, this usually favored the wealthy because education was expensive v. Created a new class of well-educated civil servants = called mandarins v. Controlled government until early 1900 s

Pax Sinica v. Han power declined & dynasty fell apart after Wudi’s reign ended

Pax Sinica v. Han power declined & dynasty fell apart after Wudi’s reign ended

China’s Social Structure

China’s Social Structure

Loosening of Strict Patriarchy Collapse of Han Dynasty (400 s CE) Nomadic people invaded

Loosening of Strict Patriarchy Collapse of Han Dynasty (400 s CE) Nomadic people invaded northern China Their women = far less restricted This influenced native Chinese women Elite women started to handle legal and business affairs More women rode horses, played polo, wore men’s clothing, etc.

Chinese Social Structure Emperor Elite Government Officials Landlord Class (Scholar-Gentry Class) Peasants (90% of

Chinese Social Structure Emperor Elite Government Officials Landlord Class (Scholar-Gentry Class) Peasants (90% of population) Merchants

China’s Landlord Class Threatened state authority Avoided paying taxes Decreased state revenues Increased tax

China’s Landlord Class Threatened state authority Avoided paying taxes Decreased state revenues Increased tax burden on the peasants Raised their own militaries Benefited from: Wealth they gained from their land Power and prestige that went with the education they paid for

China’s Peasant Class 90% of the population Suffered from: famines, floods, droughts, hails, pests,

China’s Peasant Class 90% of the population Suffered from: famines, floods, droughts, hails, pests, etc. State authorities demanded that they: Pay high taxes Provide one month’s labor every year on public works projects Serve for 2 years in the military (men only)

Yellow Turban Rebellion Peasant uprising around 184 CE In response to floods along Yellow

Yellow Turban Rebellion Peasant uprising around 184 CE In response to floods along Yellow River, resulting epidemics, and general misery & poverty Wanted a “Great Peace” with social harmony, equality, and common ownership of property Suppressed --> but weakened the Han dynasty

China’s Peasant Class Though oppressed, peasants were still honored in a way because they

China’s Peasant Class Though oppressed, peasants were still honored in a way because they provided for their country Backbone of China Hard-working Provided food = survival for all

China’s Merchant Class At the bottom of society Seen as unproductive and as profiting

China’s Merchant Class At the bottom of society Seen as unproductive and as profiting off of the hard work of others Seen as greedy and materialistic This went against Confucian values