Class size trends in NYC public schools Leonie

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Class size trends in NYC public schools Leonie Haimson Class Size Matters www. classsizematters.

Class size trends in NYC public schools Leonie Haimson Class Size Matters www. classsizematters. org 2. 23. 18

Court of Appeals decision in CFE • In the landmark Campaign for Fiscal Equity

Court of Appeals decision in CFE • In the landmark Campaign for Fiscal Equity case, the state’s highest court concluded in 2003 that smaller classes were needed for NYC students to receive their constitutional right to a sound basic education. • Yet class sizes are even larger now compared to when this decision was made, particularly in the early grades where research suggests it is most important to provide students with smaller classes.

Long-term class size trend since 1998 in grades K-3 26. 0 25. 0 24.

Long-term class size trend since 1998 in grades K-3 26. 0 25. 0 24. 9 24. 5 24. 0 24. 9 24. 7 24. 6 23. 9 23. 2 23. 0 22. 9 22. 4 22. 0 24. 2 24. 0 23. 9 22. 1 21. 7 21. 6 21. 0 22. 1 21. 4 21. 3 21. 1 21. 0 20. 9 20. 0 19. 0 9 /1 18 8 20 /1 17 20 16 /1 7 6 20 15 /1 5 20 /1 14 20 20 13 /1 4 3 /1 12 20 11 /1 2 1 20 10 /1 0 20 09 /1 9 20 08 /0 8 20 07 /0 7 20 06 /0 6 20 05 /0 5 20 04 /0 4 20 /0 03 20 02 /0 3 2 20 01 /0 1 20 00 /0 0 20 /0 99 19 19 98 /9 9 18. 0

Long term class size trend since 1998 in grades 4 -8 28. 5 28.

Long term class size trend since 1998 in grades 4 -8 28. 5 28. 1 28. 0 27. 5 27. 0 27. 2 27. 4 27. 0 26. 7 26. 5 26. 4 26. 0 26. 3 25. 9 25. 5 25. 8 25. 6 25. 1 25. 0 26. 8 26. 7 26. 626. 6 25. 3 24. 5 24. 0 20 18 /1 9 8 20 17 /1 16 20 20 15 /1 6 5 14 /1 4 20 /1 13 20 20 12 /1 3 2 /1 11 1 -1 10 20 20 09 /1 9 08 /0 8 20 /0 07 20 20 06 /0 7 6 20 05 /0 5 20 04 /0 4 03 /0 3 20 20 02 /0 2 20 01 /0 00 0 99 /2 00 /9 19 98 19 20 9 23. 5

DOE released class sizes for NYC public schools on November 15, 2018. • Citywide,

DOE released class sizes for NYC public schools on November 15, 2018. • Citywide, District and class sizes by school as of October 31, 2018 posted by here: https: //infohub. nyced. org/reports-and-policies/government/intergovernmentalaffairs/class-size-reports • What slides do not show: the Contracts for Excellence law passed in 2007 obligated NYC to reduce class size in all grades & DOE submitted plan approved by state to lower class sizes to no more than 20 on average in K-3; 23 on average in 4 th-8 th and 25 in HS. • Yet class sizes increased substantially since then. Last year we along with 9 NYC parents filed a lawsuit vs State and City on this issue. • Judge Henry Zwack held that DOE didn’t violate the C 4 E law by allowing class sizes to increase, but his decision didn’t touch on any of the facts or allegations in the case and we are going to appeal that decision.

DOE slide #3: Average class size citywide increased on average by 0. 3 to

DOE slide #3: Average class size citywide increased on average by 0. 3 to 26. 4 students per class this fall

Our analysis finds something different. • We analyze and compute average class sizes at

Our analysis finds something different. • We analyze and compute average class sizes at the three grade levels C 4 E law specifies: Grades K-3, 4 -8, and HS. • We compare the data in the DOE annual Nov. 15 class size reports to previous years, since 2007 when the law was first passed.

Citywide K-3 class sizes fell slightly but are still 14% larger than in 2007

Citywide K-3 class sizes fell slightly but are still 14% larger than in 2007 29 27 25 23. 9 23 21 20. 9 24. 8 24. 7 24. 6 24. 2 24. 0 23. 9 22. 9 20. 7 20. 5 20. 3 20. 1 19. 9 19. 9 2007 -8 2008 -9 2009 -10 2010 -11 2011 -12 2012 -13 2013 -14 2014 -15 2015 -16 2016 -17 2017 -18 2018 -2019 19 17 21. 4 22. 1 24. 5 C 4 E goals Citywide actual

In 4 th-8 th grades, Citywide class sizes remained same – 6% above 2007

In 4 th-8 th grades, Citywide class sizes remained same – 6% above 2007 levels 28 27 26 25 25. 1 25. 3 24 24. 8 24. 6 25. 8 23 26. 3 23. 3 22 26. 6 26. 7 26. 8 26. 7 26. 6 22. 9 22. 9 2011 -12 2012 -13 2013 -14 2014 -15 2015 -16 2016 -17 21 20 2007 -8 2008 -9 2009 -10 2010 -11 C 4 E goals Citywide actual 2017 -18 2018 -2019

Average HS class sizes citywide in 2018 declined slightly from last year but remain

Average HS class sizes citywide in 2018 declined slightly from last year but remain above 2007 levels 28 27. 5 27 26. 5 26 26. 1 26 25. 5 26. 2 26. 6 26. 5 26. 7 26. 4 26. 3 24. 5 26. 8 26. 7 26. 5 26. 4 24. 5 25. 7 25. 2 25 24. 8 24. 5 24 2007 -08 2008 -09 2009 -10 2010 -11 2011 -12 2012 -13 Citywide Actual 2013 -14 2014 -15 C 4 E Target 2015 -16 2016 -17 2017 -18 2018 - 19

In rest of NYS outside NYC class sizes average between 19 -22 NYC class

In rest of NYS outside NYC class sizes average between 19 -22 NYC class sizes are 15 -30% higher on average 30. 0 25. 0 20. 0 24. 8 23. 9 23. 3 19. 0 24. 8 20. 3 19. 7 22. 1 21. 5 20. 9 26. 5 25. 8 22. 4 26. 8 26. 1 25. 6 24. 9 23. 6 20. 5 20. 6 15. 0 10. 0 5. 0 0. 0 Kindergarten 1 st gr 2 nd gr 3 rd gr 4 th gr NYC 5 th gr 6 th gr English 7 Math 7 English 9 English 11 rest of state data source: NYSED for 2016 -2017; http: //www. p 12. nysed. gov/irs/pmf/ HS Chemistry

What these class size averages do not show • There are extreme disparities in

What these class size averages do not show • There are extreme disparities in class size across NYC neighborhoods and districts, with many students in classes of 30 or more. • The number of students in very large classes has grown sharply since 2007 especially in K 3.

Citywide at least 336, 165 students are in very large classes of 30 or

Citywide at least 336, 165 students are in very large classes of 30 or more this fall 400, 000 336, 165 (min) 350, 000 300, 000 250, 000 182, 425 200, 000 150, 000 115, 903 100, 000 50, 000 37, 837 - K-3 Grade 4 -8 High School (Minimum) Total

Percent students in classes of 30 or more 57% 60% 50% 36% 40% 30%

Percent students in classes of 30 or more 57% 60% 50% 36% 40% 30% 20% 14% 10% 0% K-3 over 30 4 th-8 th citywide HS (min)

The number of Kindergarten students in classes of 25 or more citywide has increased

The number of Kindergarten students in classes of 25 or more citywide has increased by more than 53% since 2007 17, 067 18, 000 16, 000 14, 000 12, 000 11, 174 10, 000 8, 000 6, 000 4, 000 2, 000 0 2007 2018

Number of 1 st - 3 rd graders in classes of 30 or more

Number of 1 st - 3 rd graders in classes of 30 or more has grown by nearly 3000% 36, 486 40, 000 35, 000 30, 000 25, 000 20, 000 15, 000 10, 000 5, 000 1, 185 0 2007 2018

Number of 4 th-8 th graders in classes of 30 or more has grown

Number of 4 th-8 th graders in classes of 30 or more has grown by 40% 140, 000 115, 903 120, 000 100, 000 83, 055 80, 000 60, 000 40, 000 20, 000 0 2007 2018

Every year since 2014, DOE has promised SED that they would focus their C

Every year since 2014, DOE has promised SED that they would focus their C 4 E class size efforts on Renewal schools • Yet, none of the fifty remaining Renewal schools capped class sizes this fall at C 4 E goals of 20 in K-3, 23 in grades 4 th-8 th, and 25 in HS core classes • In 2018, nearly three quarters (74%) Renewal schools have maximum class sizes of 30 or more. • Between November 2014 to November 2018, 36% did not reduce class size by even a fraction of a student. • Over that same period, fewer than half (48%) decreased average class size by one student of more. • Our analysis showed that those Renewal schools that did offer small classes were far more likely to have improved student outcomes, as measured by DOE’s impact score on the performance dashboard.