Class agenda The PostQin Civil War and the

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Class agenda The Post-Qin Civil War and the Founding of the Han • The

Class agenda The Post-Qin Civil War and the Founding of the Han • The collapse of Qin (210 -208) – Possible causes – The rebellion of Chen She (209) – The rise of Liu Bang • The civil wars (206 -202); Liu Bang and Xiang Yu – Historiography of the civil wars 1

Qin-Early Han 221 210 208 206 202 195 180 157 141 87 --|-----|-----|-----------|--------|-----------|--------|---First Emperor

Qin-Early Han 221 210 208 206 202 195 180 157 141 87 --|-----|-----|-----------|--------|-----------|--------|---First Emperor Qin Hui-di Civil War Era Gao-di Lü Hou Wen-di Jing-di Wu-di 2

Sima Qian’s account 3

Sima Qian’s account 3

The figure of the First Emperor • Grandiose behavior – the fengshan sacrifice •

The figure of the First Emperor • Grandiose behavior – the fengshan sacrifice • Entrancement with fangshi • Expenditures in search of immortality • Brutality • Secrecy 4

Ironies of First Emperor’s death • Search for immortality – death (by fish? )

Ironies of First Emperor’s death • Search for immortality – death (by fish? ) • Bizarre “funeral” march home (fish) • Power to the plotters – Li Si, Zhao Gao, Huhai • Self-destruction of evil men 5

Sima Qian’s profile • Father, Sima Tan (165 -110): – Han “Court Historiographer” •

Sima Qian’s profile • Father, Sima Tan (165 -110): – Han “Court Historiographer” • initiates assembling of “universal” history • charges Sima Qian to continue • Service to Emperor Wu (Wu-di) • “Crime” and punishment • Perseverance 6

The fall of the Qin • Armies of Xiang Yu and Liu Bang Xiang

The fall of the Qin • Armies of Xiang Yu and Liu Bang Xiang Yu • Fall of Xianyang (Qin capital), Liu Bang 208 Qin base Liu Bang – Burning of the palaces and archives Xiang Yu • Xiang Yu recognized as chief leader (Chu) • Liu Bang given territory in SW (Han) 7

Han Civil War: Major Combatants 1. Xiang Yu – Zhou patrician exemplar, son of

Han Civil War: Major Combatants 1. Xiang Yu – Zhou patrician exemplar, son of Chu family of generals – kind but ruthless warrior – jealous of his honor and primacy 8

Han Civil War: Major Combatants 2. Liu Bang – from eastern region – minor

Han Civil War: Major Combatants 2. Liu Bang – from eastern region – minor functionary – son of a peasant – unscrupulous military incompetent – openly dependent on talented associates 9

Descriptions of youth When Xiang Yu was a boy, having failed in his studies

Descriptions of youth When Xiang Yu was a boy, having failed in his studies of the art of writing, he abandoned it to study swordsmanship, but he failed at this too. . “I want to learn how to be the match of ten thousand enemies!” Thereupon, Xiang Liang began to teach him the strategies of warfare, which delighted Xiang Yu. But once Xiang Yu grasped the main ideas he once again refused to study in full. . Liu Bang, who as a precinct head habitually treated other officers with Bang] disdain, was falsely on histowards calling others; card: “With best wishes, [Liu kind wrote and loving he was generous ten cash, ” though in fact he had brought much as andthousand quick to understand others’ needs. Henot always hadso great ideas aand single coin. . showing insulting disdain for the other guests, never concerned himself with the ordinary business of a [he] unceremoniously proceeded to a seat of honor. family man. 10

Liu Bang and destiny • Once, . . . Asbefore the drinking he wascame

Liu Bang and destiny • Once, . . . Asbefore the drinking he wascame born, towards [his mother] its end, dreamt Master that Lü she encountered indicated by a glance a spirit. at Liu While Bang shethat dreamt, he wished the sky him grew to remain, dark with so Liu thunder Bang sat anddrinking lightning, until andhewhen was the [his father] last guest. went Then to find Master her, Lü he said saw atoscaly him, dragon “Since my hovering youth I have overliked her. to After readthis faces, she and became manypregnant are the and gave faces I have birth read. to Liu None Bang. has ever Liu Bang shown had signs a high likenose and a dragonlike yours. I urge you visage, to take agood fine care beardofon yourself, his chinand and. I cheeks. have a daughter On his left whom thigh. I wish he had you seventy-two to take as your blackwife moles. and helpmate. ” 11

Descriptions of youth The First Emperor of Qin came on a touring procession to

Descriptions of youth The First Emperor of Qin came on a touring procession to Kuaiji, and as his procession crossed the River Zhe, Xiang Liang and Xiang Yu stood on the bank to catch sight of him. Xiang Yu said “A person could topple a man like that and take his place!” Xiang Liang clapped his hand over Xiang Yu’s mouth. “No wild talk!” he said, “They’ll execute us and our families besides!” But from then on Xiang Liang regarded his nephew as exceptional. Liu Bang was once sent to perform his corvée labor duties in the Qin capital city of Xianyang. On that occasion, the Imperial carriage rode in public view and Liu Bang caught sight of the First Emperor himself. Sighing deeply he said, “Ah, this is the way a great man should be. ” 12

Character portraits: Liu Bang • Xiang Yu sent men to pursue [Liu Bang] at

Character portraits: Liu Bang • Xiang Yu sent men to pursue [Liu Bang] at Pei and seize the members of his family. . As the horsemen of Chu closed behind him in pursuit, Liu Bang became desperate, and pushed his son and daughter toppling from of the chariot. But his chariot driver, Lord Teng, stopped and stepped down to gather them back in. He did this again and again, until the third time Lord Teng finally said, “Desperate though we may be in this chase, it will not do to toss the children out!” 13

Character portraits: Xiang Yu The confrontation at the ravine of Guangyu • “Xiang Yu

Character portraits: Xiang Yu The confrontation at the ravine of Guangyu • “Xiang Yu challenged Liu Bang to meet him in single combat, but Liu Bang just berated him. ” • Liu Bang lists Xiang Yu’s 10 “crimes” • Xiang Yu flew into a rage. Gripping a crossbow that he had concealed, he shot Liu Bang and wounded him in the chest. But Liu Bang grabbed his foot and called out, “The scoundrel has hit my toe!” 14

The death of Xiang Yu • • Stoic acceptance of his fate Moving show

The death of Xiang Yu • • Stoic acceptance of his fate Moving show of affection for concubine & horse Heroism in battle Defeated by Tian, not by his own qualities – Xiang Yu asserts it – Proves it through battle predictions/skills – Narrative confirms it • Grand gestures (gifts, suicide) 15

Liu Bang’s self-assessment • Liu Bang hosted a banquet at the Southern Palace of

Liu Bang’s self-assessment • Liu Bang hosted a banquet at the Southern Palace of Luoyang and addressed those present. “Lords and generals, I ask you all to express your true thoughts with nothing concealed. How has it come to pass that I have gained possession of the world while Xiang Yu has lost it? ” 16

Liu Bang’s self-assessment • “Your majesty’s manner is arrogant and insulting towards others while

Liu Bang’s self-assessment • “Your majesty’s manner is arrogant and insulting towards others while Xiang Yu behaved kindly and was caring towards others. But when your majesty orders a man to attack a city or to invade a region, you reward him with a portion of the spoils. In this way the world shares your gains. Xiang Yu was jealous of worth and resented the able. He undercut those who had achieved merit and suspected worthy men. Though his army was victorious he distributed no rewards, though he captured lands he never shared the spoils. That is the reason he lost possession of the world. ” 17

Liu Bang’s self-assessment • “You know one reason, but not the other. When it

Liu Bang’s self-assessment • “You know one reason, but not the other. When it comes to strategies devised in army tents that will prevail on battlegrounds a thousand li away, I cannot compare with Zhang Liang. In bringing order to the state and comforting its people, provisioning its troops and protecting their lines of supply, I cannot compare to Xiao He. For leading allied armies of a million men to prevail on every battleground and in every siege, I cannot compare to Han Xin. These three are all men of heroic ability. And I was able to employ all three of them – that is how I gained possession of the world!” 18

The contrast drawn • Xiang Yu – Zhou-style militarist patrician leader of de •

The contrast drawn • Xiang Yu – Zhou-style militarist patrician leader of de • Liu Bang – Qin-style manipulative leader of functionaries • The outcome: Determined by Tian 19