Cladograms I Cladogram A A Cladogram is a
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I. Cladogram A. A Cladogram is a diagram that how different species are related to one another and characteristics they have in common
B. Evolutionary Tree • http: //evolution. berkeley. edu/evosite/evo 101/IIAFamilytree. shtml
C. Derived Traits 1. Relatedness between organisms is determined using derived traits. 2. Derived traits are heritable traits that can be compared across organisms a. Physical characteristics b. Genetic sequences c. Behavioral traits
D. Common ancestor 1. A common ancestor is one organism that we are both related to 2. All organisms share a common ancestor 3. The more closely related two organisms are, the more recent their common ancestor.
4. All relatives share a common ancestor * You and your cousins share a common ancestor (your grandparents). This common ancestor existed about 100 years ago **These animals share a common ancestor (an insect). This common ancestor excited trillions of years ago.
5. Typical Misconception a. Humans and chimpanzees are evolutionary cousins and share a recent common ancestor that was neither chimpanzee nor human. b. Humans did NOT evolve from Chimps c. Humans and Chimps shared a common ancestor
E. Speciation 1. A species is a group of organisms that cannot interbreed with one another. 2. One species can become two population is isolated. 3. Example: • A piece of land separates a fish from interacting with one another. Over time, the fish adapt to their separate environments and eventually cannot breed with one another.
II. Reading a cladogram 1.
Reading a cladogram cont. 2. When one line breaks into two lines, this represents speciation, or one species becoming two different species
Reading a cladogram cont. 3.
Reading a cladogram cont. 4.
Reading a cladogram cont. 5. Example
6. Practice 1. What animal shares the most recent common ancestor with Primates? Rodents and Rabbits 2. What traits are shared between primates and dinosaurs? Vertebrae, Bony skeleton, Four limbs, Amniotic egg
Making a cladogram • http: //ccl. northwestern. edu/simevolution/obonu/cladograms/Ope n-This-File. swf