Civil Rights Movement Roots of the Civil Rights

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Civil Rights Movement

Civil Rights Movement

Roots of the Civil Rights Movement • • W. E. B. Dubois and Booker

Roots of the Civil Rights Movement • • W. E. B. Dubois and Booker T. Washington Jackie Robinson WWII Seeing women and other groups get full rights in the late 1800 s and early 1900 s. • Continued segregation in the South. • Exposure on TV.

Segregation • Segregation and Jim Crow had been the law of the land in

Segregation • Segregation and Jim Crow had been the law of the land in the South since the late 1800 s. • Armed forces were segregated during WWII. Truman changed that during the Korean War. • FDR forbade segregation in federal agencies and companies during WWII. • Many aspects of life are segregated.

NAACP’s Strategy • Strategy was to target school districts for segregation in legal battles

NAACP’s Strategy • Strategy was to target school districts for segregation in legal battles with lawyer Thurgood Marshall. • 1946, Morgan vs. Virginia said that it is unconstitutional to mandate segregation on school buses. • 1950, Sweatt vs. Palmer said that it is unconstitutional to ban Black students from attending White schools even if separate Black schools exist. • 1950, Mc. Laurin v. Oklahoma State Regents, said that if college or school admits a Black student, that student has full use of all the facilities at that school.

Brown vs. Board of Education We conclude that in the field of public education,

Brown vs. Board of Education We conclude that in the field of public education, the doctrine of “separate but equal” has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal. —Chief Justice Earl Warren • Linda Brown was a 9 year old girl in Topeka. • Her parents wanted her to attend an all white elementary school 4 blocks away. • The school board required her to walk 21 blocks in a bad neighborhood, cross over train tracks, and then take a bus to school. • Parents decided to sue. • Supreme Court ruled unanimously for the Browns.

Brown vs. Board of Education • Overturns Plessey vs. Ferguson. • Brown decision will

Brown vs. Board of Education • Overturns Plessey vs. Ferguson. • Brown decision will affect 12 million kids in 21 states as states will have to integrate schools. • Some states, like DE, OK, MD, and KS are willing to comply. • The Deep South will put up more of a fight.

Resistance to School Desegregation • As your governor, I shall resist any illegal federal

Resistance to School Desegregation • As your governor, I shall resist any illegal federal court order, even to the point of standing at the schoolhouse door in person, if necessary –AL gov. George Wallace 1962 • It is very appropriate that from this cradle of the Confederacy, this very heart of the great Anglo-Saxon Southland, that today we sound the drum for freedom as have our generations of forebears before us time and again down through history. Let us rise to the call for freedom-loving blood that is in us and send our answer to the tyranny that clanks its chains upon the South. In the name of the greatest people that have ever trod this earth, I draw the line in the dust and toss the gauntlet before the feet of tyranny, and I say segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever. –AL gov. George Wallace 1963 • The unwelcomed, unwanted, unwarranted, and force-induced intrusion upon the campus of the University of Alabama today of the might of the central government offers frightful example of the oppression of the rights, privileges and sovereignty of this state by officers of the federal government. –AL gov. George Wallace 1963

Resistance to School Desegregation • A flagrant abuse of judicial power…The people of Georgia…will

Resistance to School Desegregation • A flagrant abuse of judicial power…The people of Georgia…will map a program to insure…permanent segregation of the races. – GA Gov. Herman Talmadge • Texas says it will take years to comply. • GA, MS, AR, and AL refuse to comply.

Showdown in Little Rock • In 1957, 9 Black students were to be integrated

Showdown in Little Rock • In 1957, 9 Black students were to be integrated into the Little Rock Central HS following Brown Decision. • Lots of protests. Gov. Orval Faubus calls out the National Guard to prevent the kids from entering the school. • President Eisenhower calls out the 101 st Airborne to escort the students to school and during the school day. • School year goes on without major incident. • Next year, all high schools in Little Rock closed. • Schools integrate in 1959 after pressure from Little Rock Chamber of Commerce.

Question Time • 1. What are some of the root causes of the Civil

Question Time • 1. What are some of the root causes of the Civil Rights Movement? • 2. Why did they start with schools? • 3. What message did Eisenhower send when he sent troops to Little Rock?

Rosa Parks • On Dec. 1, 1955, Rosa Parks got on a bus in

Rosa Parks • On Dec. 1, 1955, Rosa Parks got on a bus in Montgomery, AL to go home after a long day of work. • She sat in a Black section in the middle of the bus, however, when more White people got on, the driver asked four Blacks to move. • Three moved. Rosa refused. • She was arrested, booked, & fined $10.

Montgomery Bus Boycott • Following the arrest of Rosa Parks, the Black community spoke

Montgomery Bus Boycott • Following the arrest of Rosa Parks, the Black community spoke out. • Jo Ann Robinson, head of the Women’s Political Council, and E. D. Nixon, head of the local NAACP, organized a boycott of the bus system by Blacks. • They create a body called the Montgomery Improvement Association and ask a young preacher named Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. to lead it. • Most of the business (80%) the buses got was from Blacks. • For 381 days the Black boycotted the buses. • MLK’s house was firebombed. • Still, Blacks held on until the Supreme Court upheld a federal court ruling that the bus segregation was unconstitutional. Buses integrated on Dec. 21, 1956. • 1960— Boynton vs. Virginia Supreme Court declares racial segregation on public transportation is illegal because it violates Interstate Commerce Act.

SCLC • Southern Christian Leadership Conference • SCLC was closely associated with its first

SCLC • Southern Christian Leadership Conference • SCLC was closely associated with its first president, Martin Luther King, Jr. • The organization intended to draw its strength from leaders of the Black churches in the South. • The SCLC has been committed to the use of nonviolent civil disobedience as a means of securing equal rights for Blacks. • Allied with CORE—Congress of Racial Equality.

Nonviolent Resistance • Also known as civil disobedience. • Instead of using force, use

Nonviolent Resistance • Also known as civil disobedience. • Instead of using force, use peaceful forms of protest to get your way---works great when the people you are protesting against use force in retaliation. • Mohandas Gandhi of India perfected this into an art. • Use sit ins, protests, rallies, marches, vigils, boycotts, etc.

Greensboro Sit In • • • One of the first organized sit ins in

Greensboro Sit In • • • One of the first organized sit ins in the US took place in Greensboro, NC on Feb. 1, 1960 4 students, Joseph Mc. Neil, Franklin Mc. Cain, Ezell Blair, Jr. (later known as Jibreel Khazan), and David Richmond from a local college went to the Woolworth’s at sat at the counter and ordered coffee. They were heckled and taunted, but they sat until the store closed. They came back the next day with 20 more students. News cameras showed up. 60 people came third day and 300 on the fourth. Demonstrations spread to towns near Greensboro, including Winston-Salem, Durham, Raleigh, and Charlotte. Out-ofstate towns like Lexington, Kentucky also saw protests. Greensboro Blacks also boycotted stores. In July, Woolworth staff served the Black workers and desegregated all stores in the US. Luckily, Greensboro didn’t end up in violence. Sometimes, it wasn’t so good.

The Rise of Dr. King • With the use of TV covering the peaceful

The Rise of Dr. King • With the use of TV covering the peaceful demonstrations, Dr. King gets a lot of attention to him and his cause. • Inspired by Jesus, Gandhi, Thoreau. • Preached love and tolerance. • Would not tolerate violence in the Civil Darkness cannot Rights Movement. Men often hate each other because they fear each other; they fear each other because they don't know each other; they don't know each other because they can not communicate; they can not communicate because they are separated. drive out darkness: only light can do that. Hate cannot drive out hate: only love can do that.

The Freedom Riders • Civil Rights activists sent by CORE to ride buses into

The Freedom Riders • Civil Rights activists sent by CORE to ride buses into the South to test the Boynton vs. Virginia decision in 1961. • Despite the decision, the local law enforcement and judicial decisions in the South meant that local and state governments regarded the Riders' actions as unlawful. • The Riders’ had to rely on nonviolent resistance in facing both mob violence and mass arrest by authorities determined to stop their protests. • The Freedom Riders faced much resistance against their cause but ultimately received strong support from people both inside and outside the South for their efforts

The Freedom Riders • In Anniston, AL, a mob attacked the bus and slashed

The Freedom Riders • In Anniston, AL, a mob attacked the bus and slashed its tires. • Several miles outside of Anniston, when the crippled bus had to stop, it was firebombed by the mob who had followed it in cars. • As the bus burned, the mob held the doors shut, intent on burning the riders to death. • An undercover law enforcement officer finally drew his gun and forced the doors to be opened. • The Riders were viciously beaten as they fled the burning bus. • Violence plagued the rest of the journey to New Orleans

Impact of the Freedom Riders • During their journey, the original group of 13

Impact of the Freedom Riders • During their journey, the original group of 13 grew to almost 450. • The Freedom Riders established great credibility with blacks and whites throughout the United States who became motivated to engage in direct action for civil rights. • Perhaps most significantly, Freedom Riders impressed blacks living in rural areas throughout the South who later formed the backbone of the civil rights movement. • This credibility inspired many subsequent civil rights campaigns, including voter registration, freedom schools, and the black power movement. • During the summer of 1961, Freedom Riders also campaigned against other forms of racial discrimination. • They sat together in segregated restaurants, lunch counters and hotels. • Attorney General Robert Kennedy petitioned the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to draft regulations to end racial segregation in bus terminals in 1961.

Question Time • 4. How did the actions of Rosa Parks ignite a community?

Question Time • 4. How did the actions of Rosa Parks ignite a community? • 5. What made Dr. King so successful? • 6. Why were the Greensboro sit ins such a defining moment of the movement? • 7. Why does nonviolent disobedience work?

Lynching of Emmett Till • A 14 year old boy from Chicago who moved

Lynching of Emmett Till • A 14 year old boy from Chicago who moved to Mississippi. • He whistled at a white woman. • He had been beaten and had his eye gouged out before he was shot through the head and thrown into the Tallahatchie River with a 75 -pound cotton gin fan tied to his neck with barbed wire. • Till's mother insisted on a public funeral service with an open casket to let everyone see how he had been killed. • The main suspects were acquitted by an all-white jury in 67 minutes, but later admitted to committing the crime. • Shines spotlight on injustice in justice system and lynchings down South. If we hadn't stopped to drink pop, it wouldn't have taken that long. --juror

Violence in Birmingham, AL • Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth invited the SCLC and Dr. King

Violence in Birmingham, AL • Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth invited the SCLC and Dr. King to come to Birmingham to help desegregate the city. • Strong center of segregation. • 18 racially motivated bombings from 19571963. • Police Commissioner Bull Connor arrests Shuttlesworth, King, and 959 demonstrators.

Violence in Birmingham, AL • 8 White ministers write “A Call For Unity” to

Violence in Birmingham, AL • 8 White ministers write “A Call For Unity” to Dr. King to get him to stop demonstrating saying it is an issue for the courts. • 4 young kids are killed in a fire bomb at the 16 th St. Baptist Church on 9 -15 -1963.

Letter from a Birmingham Jail Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. We

Letter from a Birmingham Jail Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. We know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed. One has not only a legal, but a moral responsibility to obey just laws. Conversely, one has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws. How does one determine whether a law is just or unjust? A just law is a man-made code that squares with the moral law or the law of God. An unjust law is a code that is out of harmony with the moral law. To put it in terms of St. Thomas Aquinas: An unjust law is a human law that is not rooted in eternal law and natural law. Any law that uplifts the human personality is just. Any law that degrades human personality is unjust. All segregation statutes are unjust because segregation distorts the soul and damages the personality. It gives the segregator a false sense of superiority and the segregated a false sense of inferiority. An unjust law is a code that a majority inflicts on a minority that is not binding on itself. This is difference made legal. On the other hand a just law is a code that a majority compels a minority to follow that it is willing to follow itself. This is sameness made legal. In your statement you assert that our actions, even though peaceful, must be condemned because they precipitate violence. But is this a logical assertion? Isn't this like condemning a robbed man because his possession of money precipitated the evil act of robbery? Isn't this like condemning Socrates because his unswerving commitment to truth and his philosophical inquiries precipitated the act by the misguided populace in which they made him drink hemlock? Isn't this like condemning Jesus because his unique God-consciousness and neverceasing devotion to God's will precipitated the evil act of crucifixion? We must come to see that, as the federal courts have consistently affirmed, it is wrong to urge an individual to cease his efforts to gain his basic constitutional rights because the quest may precipitate violence. Society must protect the robbed and punish the robber. Oppressed people cannot remain oppressed forever. The yearning for freedom eventually manifests itself, and that is what has happened to the American Negro. Something within has reminded him of his birthright of freedom, and something without has reminded him that it can be gained. I have consistently preached that nonviolence demands that the means we use must be as pure as the ends we seek. I have tried to make clear that it is wrong to use immoral means to attain moral ends. But now I must affirm that it is just as wrong, or perhaps even more so, to use moral means to preserve immoral ends. Let us all hope that the dark clouds of racial prejudice will soon pass away and the deep fog of misunderstanding will be lifted from our fear-drenched communities, and in some not too distant tomorrow the radiant stars of love and brotherhood will shine over our great nation with all their scintillating beauty.

Kennedy Steps In • As the violence grows, JFK has had enough. • JFK

Kennedy Steps In • As the violence grows, JFK has had enough. • JFK used troops and ordered Gov. Wallace to desegregate the Univ. of Alabama. • Shortly after the speech, a sniper killed Medgar Evers, the field secretary of the NAACP. A white supremacist was charged and released. The nigger loving Kennedys, want to change our way of life, down here. —Bull Connor

March on DC • On August 28, 1963, Dr. King and 250, 000 march

March on DC • On August 28, 1963, Dr. King and 250, 000 march on Washington. • They speak for 3 hours on civil rights. • The highlight of the event was Dr. King’s speech.

 • • • • Let us not wallow in the valley of despair,

• • • • Let us not wallow in the valley of despair, I say to you today, my friends. And so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal. " I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. I have a dream today! I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of "interposition" and "nullification" -- one day right there in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers. I have a dream today! I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, and every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight; "and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed and all flesh shall see it together. “ This is our hope, and this is the faith that I go back to the South with. With this faith, we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith, we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith, we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day. And this will be the day -- this will be the day when all of God's children will be able to sing with new meaning: My country 'tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing. Land where my fathers died, land of the Pilgrim's pride, From every mountainside, let freedom ring! And if America is to be a great nation, this must become true. And so let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire. Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York. Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania. Let freedom ring from the snow-capped Rockies of Colorado. Let freedom ring from the curvaceous slopes of California. But not only that: Let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia. Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee. Let freedom ring from every hill and molehill of Mississippi. From every mountainside, let freedom ring. And when this happens, when we allow freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual: Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free at last! I Have a Dream

Civil Rights Act of 1964 • In 1964, President Johnson will sign the Civil

Civil Rights Act of 1964 • In 1964, President Johnson will sign the Civil Rights Act. • Outlawed segregation in the US schools and public places. • It became illegal to compel segregation of the races in schools, housing, or hiring. • Created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. 24 th Amendment--prohibits both Congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax.

Question Time • 8. Why are so many people so violent towards the Civil

Question Time • 8. Why are so many people so violent towards the Civil Rights Movement? • 9. Why is Dr. King’s speech considered to be one of the greatest in American history? • 10. What rights did the Civil Rights Act of 1964 grant?

Missing Workers • The Mississippi Civil Rights Workers Murders involved the 1964 slayings of

Missing Workers • The Mississippi Civil Rights Workers Murders involved the 1964 slayings of three political activists. • The murders of James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner, symbolized the risks of participating in the Civil Rights Movement in the South during what became known as "Freedom Summer", dedicated to voter registration. • The three were stopped in Philadelphia, MS for “speeding 35 mph over the limit” and released that night. After their release, they were hunted down by KKK members and murdered. • After their bodies were found, seven men were charged with murder but acquitted when they faced a hung jury.

Selma March • In 1965, the SCLC wanted to help register Black voters in

Selma March • In 1965, the SCLC wanted to help register Black voters in the city of Selma, AL. • Half of the city Black, but only 3% were registered. • In January 1965, 2, 000 demonstrators were arrested. • Dr. King announces a march to Selma from Montgomery, 50 miles, with 600 people to protest. • Police attacked some of the marchers. • Two weeks later, the crowd swelled to 3, 000 who entered Selma. • Martin Luther King would win the Nobel Peace Prize.

Voting Rights Act of 1965 • Outlawed the requirement that would-be voters in the

Voting Rights Act of 1965 • Outlawed the requirement that would-be voters in the US take literacy tests to qualify to register to vote. • Provided for federal registration of voters in areas that had less than 50% of eligible minority voters registered. • In Selma, AL, Black voters went from 10% of the population to 60%.

Segregation in the North • De Facto Segregation—Segregation by custom. (by law is called

Segregation in the North • De Facto Segregation—Segregation by custom. (by law is called de jure). • Harder to fix than legal separation because you cannot legislate against it. • White flight increases racial tensions. • Blacks begin to move into poorer areas up North. • Poorer areas do not have the money to keep businesses around or have high levels of quality education.

Race Riots • 1964—NYC erupts after white police kill a 15 year old girl.

Race Riots • 1964—NYC erupts after white police kill a 15 year old girl. • 1965—Watts, an LA neighborhood, erupts for 7 days against white authorities. • 1967—Newark, NJ explodes for 5 days over police brutality. • 1967—Detroit has 5 days of violence after the Newark riots ended. Started after cops raided a speakeasy. 43 dead, 467 injured, over 7, 200 arrests and more than 2, 000 buildings burned down.

Nation of Islam • Created by Elijah Muhammad in 1930. • Brought the Muslim

Nation of Islam • Created by Elijah Muhammad in 1930. • Brought the Muslim faith to Black Americans who were disenfranchised with Judeo-Christian views • The Nation of Islam taught that Blacks should take by force instead of waiting for rights to happen. • They are seen as a controversial and radical group.

If you're not ready to die for it, take the word "freedom" out of

If you're not ready to die for it, take the word "freedom" out of your vocabulary. —Malcolm X If you think we are here to tell you to love the white man, you have come to the wrong place. —Malcolm X • Militant Black Rights advocate. • Felt Blacks should take rights, not beg for them. Well, if you • Powerful leader of the Nation of Islam. don’t use the ballot, we’re • Goes to Mecca in 1965 and changes many going to be forced to use views. the bullet. So let us try the • Has a split with the Nation of Islam. ballot. — Malcolm X • Is assassinated in 1965. In the past, yes, I have made sweeping indictments of all white people. I will never be guilty of that again — as I know that some white people are truly sincere, that some truly are capable of being brotherly toward a black man. The true Islam has shown me that a blanket indictment of all white people is as wrong as when whites make blanket indictments against blacks. –Malcolm X

Black Power • Founded by Stokely Carmichael in 1966. • Movement emphasized racial pride

Black Power • Founded by Stokely Carmichael in 1966. • Movement emphasized racial pride and the creation of black political and cultural institutions to nurture and promote black collective interests, t advance black values, and secure black autonomy. • Came from the SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee) and CORE. • Became very militant. • The Black Panthers, created by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale (and later Carmichael) would draw a lot of attention from this movement.

Question Time • 11. Why did Malcolm X and the Black Panthers appeal to

Question Time • 11. Why did Malcolm X and the Black Panthers appeal to some people? • 12. What were the causes of the race riots in the North?

Assassination of Dr. King • In 1968, Dr. King became an advocate of poor

Assassination of Dr. King • In 1968, Dr. King became an advocate of poor people. • In March, King went to Memphis, TN in support of the Black sanitary public works employees who had been on strike since March 12 for higher wages and better treatment. • King was staying at the Lorraine Motel. • He stepped onto the balcony outside his room and was murdered on April 4 by James Earl Ray. • King was 39.

Assassination of Dr. King • Riots appeared in 125 cities across the nation. •

Assassination of Dr. King • Riots appeared in 125 cities across the nation. • Robert Kennedy, who would soon be assassinated as well, appealed to Whites and Blacks to heal and come together. • Violence at the 1968 DNC. • Became more popular in death than in life as a martyr to human rights.

Kerner Commission • Made in 1967 by President Johnson to investigate the causes of

Kerner Commission • Made in 1967 by President Johnson to investigate the causes of the 1967 race riots. • Its finding was that the riots resulted from black frustration at lack of economic opportunity. • Its best-known quote is: "Our nation is moving toward two societies, one black, one white—-separate and unequal. “ • Its results showed that one main cause of urban violence was white racism. • It called to create new jobs, construct new housing, and put a stop to de-facto segregation in order to wipe out the destructive ghetto environment.

Civil Rights Act of 1968 • Banned discrimination in housing. • Also known as

Civil Rights Act of 1968 • Banned discrimination in housing. • Also known as the Fair Housing Act. • Would not allow anybody to prevent anyone from the sale or rental of any housing unit based on , religion, national origin, sex, handicap, and family status

Legacy of the Civil Rights Movement • Blacks are doing better than they ever

Legacy of the Civil Rights Movement • Blacks are doing better than they ever did previously. • No more poll taxes or other clauses to ban Black voting. • Segregation is at an end. • Blacks have better opportunities for economic and educational advancements. • More Blacks in public office.

Legacy of the Civil Rights Movement • Still a lot more work to do.

Legacy of the Civil Rights Movement • Still a lot more work to do. • Simmering animosity in some areas over racial issues. • White flight continued. • Urban areas see higher rate in crime and poverty. • Affirmative Action programs. • MLK Day and Black History Month

Question Time • 13. What did the Kerner Commission say? • 14. In what

Question Time • 13. What did the Kerner Commission say? • 14. In what ways have racial relations gotten better since the 1960 s? • 15. In your opinion, what racial issues still exist today?