- Slides: 43
Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement • Post WWII America experienced social and political movements resulting in federal legislation ensuring equal rights for African Americans.
“Non-violence works best when resistance and suffering is witnessed by many people. ” - Gandhi
Truman Integrates the Military • Executive Order 9981 was an executive order issued on July 26, 1948, by President Harry S. Truman. • It abolished racial discrimination in the United States Armed Forces and eventually led to the end of segregation in the services.
Brown v. Board of Education
Brown v. Board of Education • Claimed separate facilities were inherently unequal • In 1951, a class action suit was filed against the Board of Education of the City of Topeka, Kansas in the United States District Court for the District of Kansas. The plaintiffs were thirteen Topeka parents on behalf of their 20 children.
Brown v. Board of Education • Brown v. Board of Education (1954), the Court ruled that • “…. any language in Plessy v. Ferguson contrary to this finding is rejected. We conclude that in the field of education the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’ has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal. ” • Brown v. BOE overturned Plessy v. Ferguson (? ? ) • It violated the 14 th Amendment. The members of the U. S. Supreme Court that on May 17, 1954, ruled unanimously that racial segregation in public schools is unconstitutional.
Brown v. Board of Education • Many Southern states did not abide by ruling • Little Rock Nine: President Eisenhower sends troops to escort 9 black students (1957) https: //www. youtube. com/watch ? v=SAsh_PDr 1 cc
SNCC • https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=QZE 0 a 5 p 9 pg&t=212 s • Freedom Rides video * • Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee • College age students organizing civil disobedience/non-violent resistance • Sit-ins, freedom rides • Goal: grassroots movement that involved all classes of African Americans and whites to defeat racism and obtain equlaity
MLK, Jr. and SCLC
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Video * § Most prominent civil rights leader of the 50 s and 60 s. § He was the head of the (SCLC) Southern Christian Leadership Conference. § African American ministers organized non-violent protests § led peaceful demonstrations and marches to protest discrimination § Inspired by Gandhi in India.
Letter from a Birmingham Jail
Letter From Birmingham Jail: April 1963 • • • The mayor of Birmingham was a segregationist and the police commissioner, Eugene "Bull" Conner was known for his hostile and sometimes violent treatment of African Americans. King, and SCLC organizers, set up headquarters in Birmingham… King personally led a march on Good Friday, April 12 th. All protestors were quickly arrested. Birmingham police separated King placing him in solitary confinement, and denying each man his rightful phone-calls to the outside world.
Letter From Birmingham Jail Letter Video * King spent 8 days in a prison cell and during that time he composed his "Letter from a Birmingham Jail. " The letter was a response to a letter that had recently run in a local newspaper, which had claimed that the protests were "unwise and untimely. ” "justice too long delayed is justice denied. "
On May 3 rd the police commissioner had his forces blast the young protestors with firehoses, and released attack dogs against them. It was these acts of violence– broadcast on national television– that pricked the national conscience, and marked a turning point not only in Birmingham but also in the Civil Rights Movement as a whole. Telegrams flooded the White House conveying outrage, and it became clear that the Kennedy Administration would have to confront civil rights issues more directly.
March on Washington and I Have a Dream Speech
I Have a Dream Speech & March on Washington, August 28 th, 1963 § March on Washington to put pressure on Congress to pass Civil Rights Bill § 200, 000+ demonstrators gathered in front of Lincoln Memorial § 1 st time the NAACP, SNCC, and SCLC come together http: //www. history. com/topics/black-history/march-onwashington/videos https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=I 47 Y 6 VHc 3 Ms 12: 10 “I have a dream”
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Civil Rights Act of 1964 § President Kennedy was committed to federal civil rights legislation. § The Civil Rights Act of 1964, was signed into law by Lyndon B. Johnson after Kennedy's assassination. § This gave the federal gov’t power to enforce desegregation in schools by withholding funds from noncompliant districts. § This to sought to end discrimination based on sex, race, color, national origin in employment, public accommodations, and public schools.
http: //www. history. com/topics/black-history/civil-rightsmovement/videos/bloody-sunday-1965 Blood Sunday • Voting Rights March: a 54 -mile march from Selma to the state capital of Montgomery • Governor George Wallace ordered state troopers “to use whatever measures are necessary to prevent a march” • On March 7, 1965, state troopers brutally assaulted the peaceful marchers
Turnaround Tuesday • 2 nd march failed as protesters turned around at the same bridge • That night white Northern minister was killed by the KKK in Selma • LBJ pressures Governor Wallace to order the National Guard to protect the marchers and a federal judge ordered them allowed to march because of 1 st Amendment
3 rd times the charm! • A few days march to Montgomery ended with a rally days later of 25, 000 people!
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Voting Rights Act of 1965 § LBJ signed the Voting Rights Act of 1965 into law as a result of the Selma March efforts. § States were prohibited from using discriminatory practices, including "literacy" examinations, poll taxes, violence, and other methods of intimidation aimed at keeping black Americans from the polls. § This was enforced by the 24 th Amendment. § Within months, voter registration among African Americans rose to 70% in the South.
King Assassination * v MLK Assassination v v v April 4, 1968 - A sniper assassinates Dr. King as he stands on the balcony of his second-floor room at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis. King was there to lead a peaceful march in support of striking sanitation workers. He dies in St. Joseph's Hospital from a gunshot wound in the neck. James Earl Ray is later captured and convicted of the murder.
1960’s Political Change
The political climate of the 1960’s was reflective of the progressive social movements in the same decade.
President Johnson’s Presidency “The Great Society rests on abundance and liberty for all. It demands an end to poverty and racial injustice” - LBJ 1964 - Civil Rights Act 1964 - Voting Rights Act 1965 - declared a “war on poverty” - Medicare (healthcare for the old) - Medicaid (healthcare for the poor) - Head Start: preschool to low income children - http: //video. pbs. org/video/2148904263/
Time Out • Describe the political impact the assassination of JFK had on the civil rights movement. • What was the name of Johnson’s vision for America? • What was the goal? • What was established to address healthcare for the elderly? • What was established to address healthcare for the poor?
The Warren Court • Cases that create a significant impact or change are called landmark cases. Beginning with the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision, landmark cases est. civil liberties were the hallmark of the Warren Court, which was named after Chief Justice Earl Warren. • A liberal time for the Supreme Court where they ruled on many social topics in favor of more liberties and rights “equal justice under the law”
The Warren Court - Case Rulings: - 1966 Miranda v. Arizona - informing a person being arrested of their rights - https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=2 Qi. Fg 7 MJL 3 E - https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=t. A 1 kd. JOWo 5 k - 1967 Loving v. Virginia - Interacial marriage is approved by federal court - https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=z. RXu. CY 7 t. Rgk
Time Out • • • Who was Earl Warren? Describe how the Warren Court expanded individual liberties. What did Brown v. Board overturn? What was the Miranda decision? Where do we see the Miranda decision today? What did Loving v. Virginia make legal?
Election of 1968 - Democrats want Robert F. Kennedy (JFK’s bro) to run for president (liberal anti-Vietnam war candidate) - was assassinated in the election year on June 6, 1968 (only a few months after MLK’s assassination) - At the Democratic National Convention they had no antiwar candidate for the voters to pick from → chaos ensued - http: //www. history. com/topics/1960 s/videos/violence-batters-1968 democratic-convention
Robert Kennedy • To the country’s horror, once again an assassin’s bullet took the life of Robert Kennedy June 6, 1968. Sirhan was implicated in the assassination that occurred at the Ambassador Hotel on June 5, 1968. (Kennedy’s anti-Palestine, Pro-Israel stance was allegedly the reasoning). • Outside the Democratic National Convention, thousands of individuals demonstrated against the Vietnam War to express their desire for a democratic anti-war candidate to replace Kennedy. The Chicago police unleashed tear gas and wielded nightsticks against the demonstrators- the violence brought into the homes of Americans by television cameras.
Election of 1968 - Democrats will nominate Hubert Humphrey - Republicans will nominate Richard Nixon - Independent party nominates George Wallace - Nixon wins in a landslide! - Significance: Allows for the ***rise of the conservative movement (republican party) - Conservatism: political philosophy or attitude that emphasizes respect for traditional institutions and opposes the attempt to achieve social change though legislation or publicly funded programs.
Time Out • What two national leaders were assassinated in 1968? • What impact did their assassinations have on the nation? • What happened at the Democratic National Convention in 1968? • Why were people protesting at the DNC? • What event happened in Vietnam in 1968 that made the anti-war protest grow larger?
What do you remember? 39. What was the goal of the United Farm Workers movement? 40. Who was Cesar Chavez?
Union Workers movement ●Cesar Chavez founder of the United Farm Worker’s Union ●goals: ○improve conditions ○boycott California grapes ●https: //www. youtube. com/watch ? v=zeo-q-8 MOQ 4