- Slides: 16
Chp. 1 - Managers & Management
�Organization - a systematic arrangement of people brought together to accomplish some specific purpose
3 Common Characteristics of all Organizations � 1) have a distinct purpose or goals � 2) are composed of people � 3) have a deliberate structure i. e. creating rules & regulations, control of members
Organizational Members fit into two Categories �a) operatives - work directly on the job �b) managers - direct the activities of other people in the organization
�Effectiveness - "what" we are doing - doing the right task; successfully reaching your goals �Efficiency - "how" we are doing it - relationship between inputs and outputs (if there's more output for a given input, efficiency is increased) �** Good management attains goals (effectiveness) as efficiently as possible
Four Basic Management Processes � Management - process of getting things done, efficiently and effectively, with or through other people � ** Managers must be able to perform all 4 activities at the same time and realize that each has an effect on the other � 1) Planning - defining an organization's goals - establishing an overall strategy for achieving those goals - developing a complete ranking of plans to integrate and coordinate activities � * Setting goals keeps the work to be done in its proper focus and helps organization members keep their attention on what is important.
� 2) Organizing - determining what tasks are to be done - who is to do the tasks - how the tasks are to be grouped - who reports to whom - where decisions are to be made � 3) Leading - motivating employees - directing the activities of others - selecting the most effective communication channel - resolve conflicts among members
� 4) Controlling - monitoring an organization's performance - comparing performance with previously set goals - if necessary, getting the organization back on track �* To ensure that things are going as they should, a manager must monitor the organization's performance.
General Management Skills �a) Conceptual skills - the mental ability to analyze & diagnose complex situations. � b) Interpersonal skills - the ability to work with, understand, mentor, and motivate other people, both individually and in groups. � c) Technical skills - the ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise �d) Political skills - the ability to enhance one's position, build a power base, and establish the right connections.
Specific Management Skills (sets of behaviours) � 1) controlling the organization's environment and its resources (i. e. planning & directing meetings and on-the-spot decision-making) � 2) organizing & coordinating � 3) handling information (i. e. if a problem arises, use information for identifying problems & making effective decisions)
� 4) providing for growth and development (through continual learning on the job) � 5) motivating employees and handling conflicts � 6) strategic problem solving
�Top - make decisions about the direction of an organization and establish policies that affect all organizational members �Middle - translate goals set by top management into specific details �First Line - supervisors (direct day-to-day activities of operative employees) �Operative - no responsibility or overseeing the work of others
Is the manager's job universal? �a) Level in the organization - as managers move up, they do more planning and less direct overseeing of others �- all do the 4 processes, but the amount of time they give to each activity is NOT necessarily constant and the content of the managerial activities changes with the manager's level
�b) Profit versus Non-Profit - - manager's job is mostly the same in both �- major difference is making a profit is not the primary focus for not-forprofit organizations
Management Across National Borders �concepts & ideas are transferable to most Englishspeaking, free-market democracies �will need to modify concepts in other countries
�Managers: a) make decisions b) are agents of change �a) almost everything managers do requires them to make decisions �b) organizations today operate in a world of dynamic change, successful managers acknowledge the rapid changes around them and are flexible in adapting their practices to deal with those changes �