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Choice Based Credit System Max. Intake : 20 Seats Syllabus and Course Description of Open Course 2017 -19 Department of Lifelong Learning & Extension University of Kalyani Syllabus Course code CBCS : Lifelong Learning & Extension Full marks – 100 (Credit : 4)
Objectives 1. To create understanding of concepts of Lifelong Learning. 2. To aware PG students of other Departments about the different approaches of Lifelong Learning. 3. To provide the Knowledge and experience of Extension activities.
Content Theory (75 per cent of the total weightage) A. Definition and Scope of Lifelong Learning; Development of the concept of Lifelong Learning; Changing Concepts and Meanings of Adult Education: From eradication of illiteracy to lifelong learning. B. The ‘knowledge society’ and lifelong learning: An introduction C. The impact of globalization on education systems D. Lifelong learning traditions in the European countries – education in the welfare state E. Re-conceptualizing lifelong learning for Sustainable Development F. Higher Education as a lifelong investment: the policies and reforms in India
Practical (25 per cent of the total weightage) 1. Hands on experiment in one Income Generating Programme. 2. Field Visit for any one i. Linking sustainable Agriculture with Lifelong Learning ii. Enterprise and Entrepreneurial Development
Reading Materials 1. Aspin, D. N. (2000) ‘Lifelong learning: concepts and conceptions’. International Journal of Lifelong Education, Vol. 19 Issue 1, p 2 -18. 2. European Commission (2000) Memorandum on Lifelong Learning. Brussels, 30. 10. 2000, SEC(2000) 1832. 3. UNESCO (2005) Towards Knowledge Societies. UNESCO: Paris. [available on Unesco’s website] 4. Carnoy, M. (1999) Globalization and Educational Reform. UNESCO-IIEP: Paris. [chapters III and V] The entire text can be downloaded from http: //unesdoc. unesco. org/images/001202/120274 e. pdf 5. European Commission, (2000), Memorandum on lifelong learning. Luxembourg: Office of Official Publications of the European Communities. 6. Maastricht Conference on “Research Training as a Key to a Europe of Knowledge”: www. eua. be/eua/en/eua_conferences_past. jspx 7. Naidoo, R. (2003). Repositioning higher education as a global commodity: Opportunities and challenges for future sociology of education work. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 24(2), 249 -259. 8. Keynote address of Professor Peter Mayo, University of Malta in the International Conference on Lifelong Learning: Issues and Perspectives held in University of Kalyani during 17 -18 February, 2017. 9. RUSA document of MHRD, Go. I. 10. Daswani C. J. , and Shah S. Y. , (eds), Adult Education in India, Selected papers, UNESCO, New Delhi, 2000.
M. Com. Second Semester Paper- M. C. 201 Personal Income Tax (CBCS) Full Marks: 100 (Term End Exam— 80 and Internal Assessment - 20) 1. Basic Concepts under Income Tax Act (6 classes) (a) Assessee, Previous year, Assessment year, Income, Sources of income, Heads of income, Gross total income, Total income, Rate of tax applicable to individual assessee, Tax evasion, Tax avoidance, Tax planning, tax liability of an individual assessee (b) Residential Status and Incidence of Tax of an Individual Assessee (c) Incomes which do not form part of Total Income 2. Heads of Income and Calculation of Tax-I (a) Salaries, (b) Income from House property, (24 classes) 3. Heads of Income and Calculation of Tax-II (c) Capital Gain, (d) Income from Other Sources. (12 classes) 4. Income of other Persons included in Assessee’s Total Income - Remuneration of spouse, income from assets transferred to spouse and Son’s wife, income of minor (4 classes) 5. Set off and Carry Forward of Losses - Mode of set off and carry forward, inter source and inter head set off, Carry forward and set off of losses u/s 71 B, 72, 73, 74, 74 A ( 4 classes)
6. Deductions from Gross Total Income - Deductions u/s 80 C, 80 CCD, 80 CCE, 80 CCF, 80 D, 80 DDB, 80 E, 80 GG, 80 QQB, 80 T, 80 U (10 classes) 7. Tax Returns: (10 classes) (a) Provision for Filing of Return - Date of filing of return, relevant forms of return, different types of returns, return by whom to be signed, PAN, TAN (b) Advance Tax - When liable to pay, due dates and computation of advance tax (c) Tax Deducted at Source - TDS from salary, lottery, horse racing, interest on securities. 26 AS Form. (d) Self Assessment Tax (e) Interest - Interest u/s 234 A, 234 B, 234 C, (f) E-filing of Return 8. Assessment- Summary assessment u/s 143(1), Scrutiny assessment u/s 143(3), Best judgment assessment u/s 144, Income escaping assessment u/s 147. (4 classes) Suggested Readings 1. Singhania, V. and Singhavia, M. , Students’ guide to Income Tax, Taxmann 2. Ahuja & Gupta, Systematic Approach to Income Tax, Bharat Publications
Semester II Syllabus in Economics under CBCS Paper 2. 1 - Inter Departmental Course under CBCS 100 Marks (to be chosen by the students from courses offered by other Departments of the University under CBCS) Issues in Indian Economic Development Full Marks-100 Total no. of Class Hours – 40
Any Five of the Following Topics 1. National Income: I. National Income-concept and measurement II. Indian National Income- trend and growth III. Sectoral composition of Indian National Income No. of class hours-8 2 Agricultural Sector: I. Role of agriculture in economic development II. A brief overview of the growth of agricultural sector in India III. Food Security- public distribution system No. of class hours-8
3. Industrial Sector : I. A brief overview of the industrialization process in India II. Industrial policy changes in India since 1990 -impact on public sector industries III. Informal Sector-A brief overview No. of class hours-8 4. Service Sector: I. Features and growth of the service sector in India II. Emerging significance of the service sector in Indian economic growth No. of class hours-8 5. External Sector: I. Concept of Exchange Rate and Devaluation II. Trends and composition of Indian exports and imports III. Foreign trade policies-impact of trade liberalisation since 1991 IV. Concept of Balance of Payments V. Trends in Balance of Payments after 1991 No. of class hours-8
6. Financial Intermediaries, Money and Capital Markets: I. Process of credit creation by commercial banks-money multiplier II. Structure of banking in India III. Monetary policies of the Reserve Bank of India-concepts of CRR, SLR, Repo and OMO IV. Debt and Equity Instruments No. of class hours- 8 7. Public Economy-The Indian Scenario I. Objectives of budget II. Definition of different deficits-revenue deficit, fiscal deficit, primary deficit III. Indian tax structure-(i) direct taxes-personal income tax and corporate tax (ii) indirect taxes- excise and sales tax, VAT, GST No. of class hours-8 8. Social Sector: I. Concept of Human Development Index II. Education III. Health IV. India vis the rest of the world No. of class hours-8 10. Natural Resources I. Land II. Water III. Forest No. of class hours-8
Sl. No. Author 1. Dornbush & Fischer 2. Chanda Ghosh & Ambar Ghosh Samuelson & Nordhous Sampat Mukherjee & Amitabha Ghosh Ramesh Singh Sanjiv Verma 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14 15 16 Name of the Book S. Natarajan A. N. Agarwal & Kundan Lal Sampat Mukherjee Basak, Chakraborty Kapila, Uma Subrata Gupta A. N. Agarwal Swapan Roy & Joydeb Sarkhel Debesh Mukherjee Macroeconomics Indian ed Macroeconomics Economics Publisher Mc. Grawhill PHI Mc. Grawhill Principles of Macroeconomics Indian Economy The Indian Economy Central Book Agency Mc. Grawhill Unique Publisher Indian Banking Agricultural Problems of India Samakalin Arthya Vidya Bharater Arthaniti Parichay Indian Economy since Independence Bharater Arthaniti S. Chand Bikash Publishing House Indian Economy New Age Bharater Arthaniti Samakalin Bharatiya Arthaniti Chittabrata Mazumder Bharater Arthaniti Parichay Mc. Grawhill S. Chand
Syllabus and Course Description of Open Course 2018 Department of English University of Kalyani Semester II (JANUARY-JUNE 2018) OPEN COURSE INDIAN LITERATURE IN ENGLISH (SYLLABUS) (Both Indian English texts as well as translated texts may be included)
a. Unit I Poetry and Drama (at least two authors) Sub-unit-1: One long poem or three mid-length poems or ten short poems Sub-unit-2: One full-length play or three one-act plays (two authors in case of one-act plays) Unit II Prose (at least two authors) Sub-unit-1: One novel or five short stories or three essays or three speeches or three letters Sub-unit-2: One novel or five short stories or three essays or three speeches or three letters OPEN COURSE INDIAN LITERATURE IN ENGLISH (Credit 4 Marks 100) Unit I Poetry and Drama (at least two authors) Unit II Prose (at least two authors) Sub-unit I One long poem or three mid-length poems or ten short poems Sub-unit I One novel or five short stories or three essays or three speeches or three letters Sub-unit II One full-length play or three one-act plays (two authors in case of one-act plays) Sub-unit II One novel or five short stories or three essays or three speeches or three letters
Course Description in Detail Unit I. Sub-unit I. Poetry Course Content: K. Ramanujan (1929 – 1993) On the Death of a Poem Self-Portrait Elements of Composition R. Parthasarathy (1934 - ) a) The Stones of Bamiyan b) Homecoming c) Exile d) Tamil Jayanta Mahapatra (1928 - ) Myth Deaths in Orissa Traveller There will be close reading of the poems with reference to the Indian poet’s negotiation of an alien tongue and indigenous cultural root; structure, style and language of the poems.
Unit I. Sub-unit II. Drama Course Content: Chitrangada – Rabindranath Tagore Students are advised to watch on You. Tube the Santiniketan 2016 production before coming to class as the dance drama will be discussed both as a text and as a performance on stage. Unit II. Sub-unit I. Prose Course Content: Kanthapura - Raja Rao The novel will be read with reference to Gandhian ideas, treatment of class and caste, structure and style, use of folk narrative. Unit II. Sub-unit II. Prose Three Essays a) Dancing in Cambodia b) At Large in Burma c) Stories in Stone The essays can be found in Dancing in Cambodia by Amitav Ghosh These essays will be read both as travelogues and political essays.
M. A. in Folklore Semester-II Open Course in Folklore for the Academic Session 2017 -18 Full Marks – 100, 4 Credit Course : 5 Course Code: MF 201 Fundamental Concepts of Folklore Studies Unit - 1 Folklore & Folkloristics : Concept, Definition, Scope & Classification Genre Folklore : Concept, Definition, Characteristics & Classification Genre Folkloristics : Concept, Definition, Scope, Characteristics & growth of the discipline. Unit - 2 Recent Trends in Folklore Studies & Research : Field Study & Folklore, Ethnographic Study Multiculturalism, Feminism and Folklore, Subaltern Studies, Post Modernism, Folklore & Globalization, Folklore & Tourism, Folklore & Popular Culture, Folklore & Mass Communication, Environment & Folklore. Unit - 3 Geographical, Historical & Socio-Cultural Profile of Bengal : Geographical & Historical Profile of Bengal, Socio-Cultural Profile of Bengalee, Demography & Ethnography of Bengal. Unit - 4 Basic Concepts of Folklore Genres : Folk Literature, Beliefs and Customs, Materalized Folklore, Folk Performing Arts
HISTORY CBCS Open Course Paper V : Society and Culture in India Unit 1 : Nature, wild life and ethnic communities in India - nature and human civilization, different changes and the issue of sustainable progress of human society ; animal ethics, society and culture of different ethnic communities inhabiting different geographical zones in India, Unit 2 : Spiritual and material culture, contradiction and conflict - some case studies - Ajivikism, Buddhism, Jainism, Vaishnavism, Sufism. Unit 3 : Dalits in India - Dalit historiography, Dalit movements in India Unit 4 : Culture and heritage of India - elite and folk culture and their varieties -Assam, Mizoram, Bengal, Rajasthan, Kerala ; temple and society in India, some case studies - participation of Indian temple in society and economy - Orissa, South India, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Unit 5 : Education and press in India - traditional education and its regional variations, spread of western education in India, a journey from colonial to post-colonial India ; role of newspapers, journals and periodicals in the spread of education, social movement and nationalism. Unit 6 : Evolution of different forms of music and dance as performing art -(a) music - North and South Indian varieties ; (b) dance: North, South and North- Eastern varieties.
Syllabus of Russian Language for the open course (100 Marks – 4 Credit) Russian is one of the most commonly spoken languages in the World and it’s also the Official Language of 15 Present CIS Countries (Former USSR States). Russian is a Slavonic language which belongs to the same Indo-European family as English. Its grammar and vocabulary have been influenced by a range of languages, including Old Church Slavonic, English, French, German and Greek. This course will be helpful to learn the language at a Basic Level and to speak, understand, read and write in Russian. After a summary of Russian alphabet (Cyrillic Alphabet – named after the 9 th century Monk St. Cyril, it’s reputed author), this course divides the study of Russian Language into specific Sections. 1. Introductory Phonetics: Basic Phonetical and Spelling Rules. 2. Communicative Russian: Functional Grammar. 3. Text Comprehension: 4. Oral Expression: Reading and Answering question, Expressing opinion and feelings and discussing issues of general interest.
Philosophy Open Course 2 nd Semester, Paper V [Course- PGPHIL 201 Total Credit - 4, Total Marks – 100 PGPHIL 201: Interdisciplinary Discourse on Philosophy
• Unit I: Value Based Education 1. 2. 3. 4. Moral Belief The Object of Morality Emotivism Prescriptivism 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Nature and Value of Rights Epistemology of Human Rights Kant’s Theory of Justice Mill’s Theory of Justice Rawl’s Theory of Justice Amarta Sen’s Theory of Justice 1. Boolean logic 1. 2. 3. 4. Philosophy of Science: Its scope and significance Methodology of Scientific Research Nature of Theory and Observation in Science Models of Confirmation of Scientific Hypothesis • Unit II: Theories of Justice and Human Rights • Unit III: Syllogistic • • Unit IV: Philosophy of Science and Religion A. Philosophy of Science
B. Philosophy of Religion 1. • Philosophy of Religion a) Issues of truth and objectivity with respect to religions, b) Issues that concerns the modern mind regarding religions in a cross cultural perspective, c) Issues of creationism versus evolutionism, human suffering, freewill and karma, religious experience, faith and interpretation, religious pluralism and religious and secular morality, d) implications of religious pluralism for religious faith. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Inter-religious dialogue Religious pluralism Hurdles for dialogue Communal conflicts Current trends and future perspectives 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Liar Paradox Russell’s Paradox Zeno’s Paradox of Material Implication Paradox of Hedonism Unit V: Paradoxes
Course Name: Society, Politics and Governance: Indian Perspectives Topic Number of Lectures 1. Fundamental Rights and Duties: Constitutional Safeguards to Indian citizens. Human Rights: Meaning and nature; Universal Declaration of Human Rights; Protection of Human Rights: Role of NHRC and WBHRC. Gender Studies: Critical questions about sex and gender – debates on women question – key issues – gendered performance and power in a range of social spheres, i. e. economy, culture and media. Media Studies: Social and Political Communication in the age of Social Media; Role of corporate media houses. Decentralized Governance in India: Role and Functions of urban and rural local governance with special reference to West Bengal. E-governance: Problems and Prospects in India. 2 7. Politics of Identity: Gorkhaland, Bodoland Jharkhand movement. 9. Militancy and threat to State Security: U. L. F. A, K. L. O. , N. S. C. N. 10. Tribes in India: Continuity and Change – Social, 5 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 4 6 6 4 4 5 4
Suggested Books: • • • • • • • • 1. E-Governance in India: Initiatives & Issues, By R. P. Sinha, Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi. 2. E-Government: From Vision to Implementation - A Practical Guide With Case Studies By Subhash Bhatnagar, Sage Publications, New Delhi. 3. Fundamental Rights and Their Enforcement By Udai Raj Rai, PHI Learning Private Limited, New Delhi. 4. Introduction to the Constitution of India, By Durga Das Basu, V. R. Manohar, Bhagabati Prosad Banerjee, Shakeel Ahmad Khan, Lexis Nexis Butterworths Wadhwa Nagpur. 5. Human Rights in India: Issues and Perspectives, edited by Syed Mehartaj Begum, A. P. H. Publishing, New Delhi. 6. National Human Rights Commission of India: Formation, Functioning, and Future Prospects, By Arun Ray, Khama Publishing, New Delhi. 7. Gorkhaland Movement: A Study in Ethnic Separatism By Amiya K. Samanta, APH Publishers, New Delhi. 8. Small States Syndrome in India By Braja Bihārī Kumāra, Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi. 9. Panchayati Raj in India: Theory & Practice, By S. Rajneesh S. L. Goel , Deep and Deep Publications. 10. Dynamics of New Panchayati Raj System in India: Select states edited by Ganapathy Palanithurai, Concept Publishing, New Delhi. 11. Rethinking Women's and Gender Studies, edited by Catherine M. Orr, Ann Braithwaite, Routledge. 12. 50 Key Concepts in Gender Studies By Jane Pilcher, Imelda Whelehan, Sage Publishers, New Delhi. 13. State, Society, and Tribes: Issues in Post-colonial India by Virginius Xaxa, Pearson Longman. 14. Tribes of India: Ongoing Challenges edited by Rann Singh Mann, M. D. Publications Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi. 15. Gorkhaland: The Dormant Volcano, By Sumit Mukerji, A. P. H. Publishing Corporation, New Delhi. Top of Form Bottom of Form
Sanskrit Open Course 2 nd Semester, Paper - V Course SOC 105: Introduction to the Sanskrit Language: History, Literature and Culture [only for the students of the other departments]
1. History of Sanskrit Language & Literature 02 Credits a. b. Speculation of Sanskrit Language: Sanskrit Phonology, Sanskrit Morphology, Sanskrit Semantics, Sanskrit Phonetics, Sanskrit as a Member of Indo-Iranian Group History of Technical Literature: Dramaturgy, Medical Science, Political Science, Music, Art of Theft in Ancient India. 2. Primary Text Reading 02 Credits 1. Śrīmadbhagbadgīta (1 st & 2 nd Chapter) 2. Selections from Meghaduta (First 5 Ślokas from Pūrvamegha & First 5 Ślokas from Uttaramegha) 3. Hitopodesha (Mitrabheda Only) (The final list of reading will be distributed by the course instructor in the first week of the semester)
SYLLABUS Of Open course in Sociology under CBCS from the Academic Session 2017 -18 for the Semester-II Course Code & Title--2. 4: Society, Culture & Social Relationship Total Credit: 04 Full Marks: 100(Th. =80+Pract. =20)
1. Approaches in the study of society ; Origin & development of society 2. Indian Society and Culture 3. Institution : Family and marriage 4. Role of Religion in Society 5. Social Stratification & Social mobility: Nature of discrimination in society 6. Agencies of Social control: Education 7. (a) Culture and its meaning, Elements of Culture: Symbolic and Non- Symbolic dimensions (b) Multiculturalism, Cultural integration, Culture Society & Change 8. Indian Culture & Cultural Globalization 9. Cultural Construction of Gender, Gender and sexuality 10. Popular Culture, Films, Music
Political Science Course Name: Society, Politics and Governance: Indian Perspectives Course No. 2. 1 Topic Number of Lectures 1. Fundamental Rights and Duties: Constitutional Safeguards to Indian citizens. 2. Human Rights: Meaning and nature; Universal Declaration of Human Rights; Protection of Human Rights: Role of NHRC and WBHRC. 3. Gender Studies: Critical questions about sex and gender – debates on women question – key issues – gendered performance and power in a range of social spheres, i. e. economy, culture and media. 4. Media Studies: Social and Political Communication in the age of Social Media; Role of corporate media houses. 5. Decentralized Governance in India: Role and Functions of urban and rural local governance with special reference to West Bengal. 6. E-governance: Problems and Prospects in India. 2 7. Politics of Identity: Gorkhaland, Bodoland Jharkhand movement. 8. Militancy and threat to State Security: U. L. F. A, K. L. O. , N. S. C. N. 9. Tribes in India: Continuity and Change – Social, political and economic perspective. 5 4 6 6 4 4 5 4 Total=20
Suggested Books: 1. E-Governance in India: Initiatives & Issues, By R. P. Sinha, Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi. 2. E-Government: From Vision to Implementation - A Practical Guide With Case Studies By Subhash Bhatnagar, Sage Publications, New Delhi. 3. Fundamental Rights and Their Enforcement By Udai Raj Rai, PHI Learning Private Limited, New Delhi. 4. Introduction to the Constitution of India, By Durga Das Basu, V. R. Manohar, Bhagabati Prosad Banerjee, Shakeel Ahmad Khan, Lexis Nexis Butterworths Wadhwa Nagpur. 5. Human Rights in India: Issues and Perspectives, edited by Syed Mehartaj Begum, A. P. H. Publishing, New Delhi. 6. National Human Rights Commission of India: Formation, Functioning, and Future Prospects, By Arun Ray, Khama Publishing, New Delhi. 7. Gorkhaland Movement: A Study in Ethnic Separatism By Amiya K. Samanta, APH Publishers, New Delhi. 8. Small States Syndrome in India By Braja Bihārī Kumāra, Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi.
9. Panchayati Raj in India: Theory & Practice, By S. Rajneesh S. L. Goel , Deep and Deep Publications. 10. Dynamics of New Panchayati Raj System in India: Select states edited by Ganapathy Palanithurai, Concept Publishing, New Delhi. 11. Rethinking Women's and Gender Studies, edited by Catherine M. Orr, Ann Braithwaite, Routledge. 12. 50 Key Concepts in Gender Studies By Jane Pilcher, Imelda Whelehan, Sage Publishers, New Delhi. 13. State, Society, and Tribes: Issues in Post-colonial India by Virginius Xaxa, Pearson Longman. 14. Tribes of India: Ongoing Challenges edited by Rann Singh Mann, M. D. Publications Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi. 15. Gorkhaland: The Dormant Volcano, By Sumit Mukerji, A. P. H. Publishing Corporation, New Delhi. Top of Form Bottom of Form
Library And Information Science
Rural Development MRS Second Semester MRS_201: CBCS OPEN COURSE Paper Name : Fundamentals of Rural Development (100 Marks, 4 Credit) Unit – I: (2 Class Per Week 40 Marks) Faculty: Professor Udaybhanu Bhattacharyya A. Basic Concept and Scope of Rural Development - Meaning of Rural areas, meaning of Development, definition of rural development, features of rural economy, scope of rural development. B. Approaches to Rural Development - Broad front approach, Sectoral approach, Area approach, Target group approach, Integrated/ Holistic approach C. Panchayati Raj and Rural Development - Evolution of Local self – government during British period and post-independence period, Decentralisation of Power and Panchayati Raj, 73 rd Constitution Amendment Act, Issues of PRIs with reference to West Bengal. D. Current Rural Development Programmes and Strategies - SGSY, MGNREGA, NRHM, PMGSY etc. Unit- II: (1 Class Per week: 30 Marks) Faculty: Dr. Tapati Bhadra (Banerjee) E. Rural Development experiments in India and selected countries of the world - Indian Scenario - Gandhian and Tagore’s Approaches to. Rural Development in India, Rural development Experiments in SAARC Countries and Selected Developed Countries. F. Livelihood issues of rural development- Concepts and elements of livelihood and its framework, Sustainable livelihood principles, Related Government Interventions. G. Sponsored Rural Development Experiments in different countries for livelihood promotion- funded by International agencies.
Unit III: (1 Class Per Week: 30 Marks) Faculty: Dr. Sudipta Sarkar H. Institutions and Agencies involved in Rural Development- Government and Non. Government Organisational set up, Corporate Sector in. Rural Development, Peoples Participation and Extension Services I. Non-Governmental Organizations- Concept, Issues and Role in Rural Development. Community Based Organizations and their function in Rural Development, Cooperative Institutions- Concept, Issues and Role. J. Concept and Structure of Rural Banking and Finance, Microfinance and Empowerment, Role of NABARD and RRB, Govt. Schemes for Banking and Credit to Weaker Sections. Readings: Rural Development in India, Vasant Desai, Himalaya Rural Development, Principles, Policies and Management, Katar Singh, Sage Ten Decades of Rural Development: Lessons from India, Akhter Hameed Khan, Department of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan Ideas for development, Chambers R, Routledge NGOs and Rural development- Theory and Practice, Joel S. G. R Bhose, Concept Publishing Co. , New Delhi Rural Banking in India, I. C. Dingra, Sultan Chand & Sons Co-opeative Socities and Rural Development, S. K. Datta, Mittal Publications.