- Slides: 28
Chocolate • Chocolate and cocoa are derived from the Cocoa trees are grown in most tropical air- along the equator would be the best habitat. • Original transplantation of trees came from birds carrying seeds from one location to the nest. Cocoa pods are picked when they are green and then fermented in the sun until they turn brown. The pods are then split in two and the seeds are removed.
• Once removed the seeds are roasted and graded very much like coffee. The seeds go through a grinding process called conching. When the chocolate is conched it becomes liquid – the liquid is called chocolate liqueur. Inside the liqueur is a liquid called cocoa butter. Cocoa butter is a complex fat which contains the fat molecules beta 1 -7.
• In order to be labeled “ chocolate”, chocolate liqueur must be in the product. • Couverture is the term which implies that is cocoa butter is present in the chocolate. The higher the cocoa butter content, the smoother the taste of the chocolate. • Coating- cocoa butter has been replaced with shortening or paraffin.
• Couverture is the only fat used in the chocolate– must contain at least 31% cocoa butter. • Bittersweet- minimum 60 -76% cocoa liqueur • Semisweet chocolate– 50 -60% cocoa liqueur • Milk– minimum 32% cocoa solids • The rest of the percentage is sugar, cocoa butter and vanilla and lecithin.
• • Roasting greatly affects the flavor of chocolate German and Spanish manufactures use a high, strong roasts Swiss and American makers use a low of milder roast Refining is a matter of national taste. Swiss and German chocolate are the smoothest, followed by English chocolates. American chocolate is noticeably grainier.
Tasting • Chocolate quality is actually the product of several factors besides flavor all these factors should be evaluated when selecting chocolate. • Appearance- color should be even and glossy- without any discoloration • Smell- should be chocolaty with no off-odors or staleness • Break- should snap cleanly without crumbling • Texture- should melt quickly and evenly on the tongue
• Cocoa is the dry powder that remains after the cocoa butter is removed from the cocoa liqueur. Natural cocoa is somewhat bitter and acidic. • Dutch processed cocoa is processed with an alkali which produces a smoother flavor and a darker color. • Natural cocoa needs baking soda when used in baking to react with the natural alkali.
• Dutch process will not react with baking soda, so baking powder must be used when baking. • Bitter chocolate– also called unsweetened chocolate– straight chocolate liqueur. It contains no sugar and has a strong, bitter flavor. It is used to flavor items in baked when sugar is added elsewhere such as brownies.
• Bitter chocolate should never be used for enrobing candies • Bittersweet chocolate (also called dark)– chocolate liqueur with a small amount of sugar and vanilla added. Said to be the purest of edible chocolate. • Semisweet chocolate– chocolate liqueur with highest amounts of sugar added than dark. Vanilla and lecithin are also added.
• Milk chocolate– chocolate liqueur, sugar and milk powder are added for a smoother mouth feel. Very sweet. Extreme caution should be used when melting the chocolate because the milk powder scorches very easily. • White chocolate- not really chocolate. Cocoa butter, sugar and milk powder are added, considered sweeter than milk chocolate. Again, scorches very easily. • Chocolate chips – drops of chocolate available in count sizes from 14 to 160 per ounce – the average chips are 800 - 1000 per pound
• Giandjua- blend of ground roasted hazelnuts and chocolate containing 25 -38 percent liqueur, milk solids, sugar. Used in candy production, mousses, and butter creams, gianduja is a prized confection in Italy • All chocolate should be stored at cool, consistent temperature away from strong odors and moisture. Dark chocolate, white chocolate and cocoa powder can be kept up to one year without loss of flavor.
• Always wrap up the opened blocks and grated couverture very well because it tends to absorb odors and humidity • Mix the couverture well to homogenize the cocoa butter particles. • If the chocolate gets too cold and starts to set, either heat it up with a hairdryer or heat gun, otherwise you could add melted chocolate to re-stabilize the cocoa butter and obtain correct fluidity. When you do so, add the warm chocolate and the mix of the couverture. Do no mix as you add the chocolate or you will destabilize the chocolate.
• When using couverture for candies and enrobing the chocolate must go through a process called tempering. Because cocoa butter is a complex fat the beta crystals all have different melting points and solidifying points. If chocolate is simply melted and left to cool at room temperature each fat will set at its own temperature and seperate from the…
• Other ingredients. This will leave a streaky white appearance and the chocolate will never set- up correctly. • Tempering is the manipulation of cocoa fat to mix and cool the chocolate into a homogenous combination of the fats and the other ingredients when the chocolate has set. The melting of cocoa butter completely will be between 115 -200 degrees.
• Tempered chocolate will be naturally colored and have a characteristic shine to the surface of the chocolate. Chocolate that is not tempered will be gray and dull in color and lack the strength of tempered chocolate. These characteristics are due to the ingredients being broken or separated as fats set.
• • Three main goals for tempering: Shine of the chocolate Snap of the chocolate when broken Chocolate will easily pull away from candy molds
• • • There are four methods for tempering: Tabling Block method Seeding or grating Machine
Tempering • Whichever method is used the following guidelines should always be observed when melting chocolate • Cut chocolate in small pieces • Melt slowly • Can be done by microwave – 30 seconds at a time – stirring after 30 seconds • Melt over a double boiler • Melt in a warm area for hours
• When melting in a double boiler – only use 1 inch of water and the water should not be boiling or steam could get into a chocolate and seize it. One drop of water can seize an entire batch of chocolate. • Stir to avoid overheating or scorching. This is especially important with milk and white chocolate because of the milk powder.
• Take the proper temperature to make sure all cocoa butter is melted – each chocolate will list the correct temperature to melt to.
Table method • Melt chocolate • Spread two-thirds onto marble • Using metal spatula or bench scraper --- spread the chocolate out and scrape it back to the center until it cools to just under 80 degrees • Stir chocolate back into other one third of chocolate and warm to 85 -90 degrees. If chocolate goes above 95 degrees its must be re-tempered. Now ready to use – ideal working temp. is 90.
Block • Melt chocolate completely • Add a block of 8 oz for every lb of chocolate into the bowl, making sure it is off the heat, and stir until the block doesn’t melt anymore. Remove the bock and stir for an additional minutes. • Chocolate is now ready to use • If the entire block melted, the chocolate was too warm, and you must restart the process.
Seeding or grating • Melt chocolate completely • Chop or grate additional chocolate to stir in (three to one) • Stir in grated chocolate a third at a time – stir until the firs addition is completely melted before adding the next third. Continue to do this until all chocolate is melted. • When the chocolate is all in and melted,
Seeding • It should be in the area of 80 degrees. Stir continually for two minutes and the rewarm to working temperature.
Machine (very costly) • Most ideal, but very costly • Machine melts and cools the chocolate automatically
Check for temper • Always check that tempering was successful • Dip metal spatula in chocolate and let stand for five minutes – the chocolate should have set enough that it is not tacky. • Spread chocolate in a piece of parchment paper and fold over. Let set in cooler a couple of minutes, if the chocolate is tempered, it will peel away from the top layer and not smear.
Truffles • Ganache that has been formed and coated with either tempered chocolate or cocoa • Hand piped or rolled • Piped into pre-made shells then rolled • Hand- piped • • Make ganache Cool to piping consistency Pipe into quarter size pieces Chill