China Problems of the Qing o The Qing

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China

China

Problems of the Qing o The Qing Empire ended in rebellions, wars, natural disasters,

Problems of the Qing o The Qing Empire ended in rebellions, wars, natural disasters, famines, and invasions In the countryside, famine was never more than a few seasons away. Here, starving refugees crowd the alley outside of a relief office in the imperial city.

Chinese Commoners

Chinese Commoners

White Lotus Rebellion Occurred in central China not outlaying provinces

White Lotus Rebellion Occurred in central China not outlaying provinces

Nian Rebellion Increasing militarization Power shifting away from center to provinces

Nian Rebellion Increasing militarization Power shifting away from center to provinces

Taiping Rebellion Lasted more than 14 years 20 -30 million killed Hong Xiuquan—mixed Christian

Taiping Rebellion Lasted more than 14 years 20 -30 million killed Hong Xiuquan—mixed Christian and communist ideals

Sino-Japanese War 1894 -1895 The war was over Korea. Japan believed that control of

Sino-Japanese War 1894 -1895 The war was over Korea. Japan believed that control of Korea was vital to its national interest. Japan also sought to block Russia’s movement into the Far East and Manchuria. The outcome of the war changed the world’s perception of both China and Japan. Popular opinion assumed China would easily overwhelm its little neighbor. Japan emerged from the conflict as a world power, China as the “sick man” of Asia.

Treaty of Shimonseki (1895) The treaty was negotiated Li Hongzhang and Ito Hirobumi. China

Treaty of Shimonseki (1895) The treaty was negotiated Li Hongzhang and Ito Hirobumi. China was forced to accept harsh conditions: Completely renounce suzerainty over Korea. Pay an indemnity of 300 million taels ($200 million). Open seven new ports for trade and extend most favored nation status to Japan. Cede the Liaotung Peninsula, Formosa (Taiwan), and the Pescadores to Japan.

The Hundred Days Reform Emperor Guang Xu convinced that he could reform China in

The Hundred Days Reform Emperor Guang Xu convinced that he could reform China in three years. Over the next 103 days (June 11 -September 20, 1898), he issued a string of edicts. Completely restructuring of the educational system. Modernizing of the armed forces. Establishing freedom of the press. Opening banks and chambers of commerce. Establishing government departments to encourage agriculture and mining. None of the edicts were ever enforced.

Boxer Rebellion Goal to drive out “foreign devils” Red Lantern Women believed to have

Boxer Rebellion Goal to drive out “foreign devils” Red Lantern Women believed to have supernatural powers to stop foreign bullets Attacked foreign communities Multi-national force suppresses Ci Xi first supported Boxers but reversed her position Failure strengthened Chinese nationalist movement

Wearing all red, Carrying a small red lantern, Woosh, with a wave of the

Wearing all red, Carrying a small red lantern, Woosh, with a wave of the fan Up they fly to heaven.

Empress Dowager Cixi To rise from concubine to empress is no easy feat, but

Empress Dowager Cixi To rise from concubine to empress is no easy feat, but Yehonala (later known as Cixi), the unloved daughter of a commonplace government official managed to do so. Corrupt, greedy, ambitious, and murderous, Cixi clawed her way to the top with an ambition so ruthless; she drove the Qing Dynasty into powerless ruin.

Last Chinese Emperor Puyi Reigned from 1908 until his abdication on 12 February 1912

Last Chinese Emperor Puyi Reigned from 1908 until his abdication on 12 February 1912

The Xinhai Revolution also known as the Revolution of 1911 First republican government established

The Xinhai Revolution also known as the Revolution of 1911 First republican government established in Asia October 8, 1911 following the explosion of a store of weapons held by a revolutionary organization Sun Yat-sen becomes president in 1912

Revolutionaries raise the iron blood 18 star flag, which represented the unity of the

Revolutionaries raise the iron blood 18 star flag, which represented the unity of the 18 provinces, in front of the office building of the Hubei Military Government after capturing the city of Wuchang. October 10 is celebrated as the anniversary of the Revolution of 1911.

Sun Yat-sen Sun Yat Sen was the father of the Chinese Republic and president

Sun Yat-sen Sun Yat Sen was the father of the Chinese Republic and president of the provisional government. Sun was born near Canton, sent to Hawaii with an older brother where he became interested in Christianity. He was baptized and studied medicine in Hong Kong. He practiced medicine briefly in Macao.

President of the Republic of China

President of the Republic of China

Sun Yat-sen 3 Principles Nationalism Representative government livelihood

Sun Yat-sen 3 Principles Nationalism Representative government livelihood

Sun’s Nationalist Party Kuomintang Forces(Guomindang)

Sun’s Nationalist Party Kuomintang Forces(Guomindang)

General Yuan Shi Kai replaced Sun Yat Sen who had no power base. Sun

General Yuan Shi Kai replaced Sun Yat Sen who had no power base. Sun became minister of transport hoping to modernize China. Yuan was a general and an autocrat however and wanted to become emperor of China. He caved in to Japanese pressure and was opposed by other generals. He died in 1916 but set a precedent for generals to try to seize power. China was to enter one of its darkest periods, the War Lord Period.

The Warlord Period They fought for control of Beijing, to be recognized as the

The Warlord Period They fought for control of Beijing, to be recognized as the official government of China. The effects were disastrous, particularly on the peasants who were raped and pillaged and forced to pay taxes up to 30 years in advance, for their “protection and safety”.

China and WWI China joined the allies in the Great War hoping to regain

China and WWI China joined the allies in the Great War hoping to regain at least the territories run by the Germans but the treaty of Versailles awarded them to the Japanese. On May 4 th 1919, demonstrations broke out in many Chinese cities and people of all classes protested and joined parties like the GMD or the newly founded Communist Party. They united in 1922 to end warlord rule and western domination of China. Despairing of the imperial powers they turned to Communist Russia for help. They realized the need for an efficient army of their own, if China was ever going to be free and strong.

May 4 th Movement

May 4 th Movement

Comintern Connection In 1923, Sun entered into an agreement with Comintern agent, Adolf Joffe,

Comintern Connection In 1923, Sun entered into an agreement with Comintern agent, Adolf Joffe, to receive Communist assistance in unifying China.

Chiang Kai-Shek Background The Whampoa Military Academy was established in 1924. Chiang Kai-shek was

Chiang Kai-Shek Background The Whampoa Military Academy was established in 1924. Chiang Kai-shek was its commander. His position gave him a power base through the loyalty of its graduates. Chiang met Sun Yat Sen while studying in Japan and became a member of his Revolutionary Alliance. Chiang married Mayling Soong in 1927. Chiang would have been Sun Yat Sen’s brother-in-law had Sun not died two years earlier. He became a Christian in 1929 as a condition of his marriage to Mayling.

Sun Yat-sen and Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi) at the founding of the Whampoa Military

Sun Yat-sen and Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi) at the founding of the Whampoa Military Academy in 1924.

Chiang Kai-Shek Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, who assumed the leadership of KMT (Nationalists) after the

Chiang Kai-Shek Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, who assumed the leadership of KMT (Nationalists) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925.

China Under Chiang Kai-Shek China soon came to know him as the ruler of

China Under Chiang Kai-Shek China soon came to know him as the ruler of the country. He liked to be called the Genralissimo. He was able to modernise China as the electric cables for street cars shown in this picture demonstrate. Generally cities, particularly Shanghai, made great progress, even in the harsh economic climate of the 1930’s Great Depression.

Young boys learning to type

Young boys learning to type

The Rich and the Poor

The Rich and the Poor

Another potential leader… In 1927, Mao Zedong wrote his now famous report from Hunan

Another potential leader… In 1927, Mao Zedong wrote his now famous report from Hunan on the potential of rural revolution. It was a product of his successful Autumn Harvest Uprising. As a native of Hunan and a peasant, he knew the potential of the rural masses was being ignored by the CCP. From the Shanghai uprisings, he also concluded that the labor proletariat was too small in number to be effective.

Japan on the move: The Manchurian Incident, 1931

Japan on the move: The Manchurian Incident, 1931

Manchukuo (1932 -45) In 1931, the Japanese Kwantung army seized Mukden. By the end

Manchukuo (1932 -45) In 1931, the Japanese Kwantung army seized Mukden. By the end of 1932, the Japanese had invaded all of Manchuria. In 1932, Henry Puyi (the last Qing Emperor) was declared regent of the “independent” state of Manchukuo. The adjoining Chinese province of Jehol was invaded in 1933.

Conflict in China To crush the growing CCP strongholds, Chiang Kai-shek conducted five annihilation

Conflict in China To crush the growing CCP strongholds, Chiang Kai-shek conducted five annihilation campaigns. The first four failed. However, the fifth in 1933 created an untenable situation for the CCP. Communist forces broke out in 1934 and began an 8, 000 mile march to Shaanxi. One hundred thousand persons started the Long March. Only 10% reached the new base of Yan’an in 1935.

Mao and his second wife who accompanied him on the march

Mao and his second wife who accompanied him on the march

The Marco Polo Bridge Incident, 1937 The Marco Polo Bridge Incident of 1937 began

The Marco Polo Bridge Incident, 1937 The Marco Polo Bridge Incident of 1937 began WWII in China, when shots were fired between Japanese and Chinese forces who “accidentally” encountered each other while on maneuvers. Chiang Kai-shek saw the incident as an attempt by Japan to completely separate northern provinces from Chinese control and incorporate them into the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo. Chiang was left no alternative but to fight a full scale war. Beijing, Shanghai and Nanjing fell to the Japanese despite the heroic efforts of Chinese forces.

Second Sino-Japanese War 1937

Second Sino-Japanese War 1937

Reluctant Partners

Reluctant Partners

Nationalist soldiers during the Second Sino. Japanese War.

Nationalist soldiers during the Second Sino. Japanese War.

The Rape of Nanking

The Rape of Nanking

Civil War Again 1945 -1949

Civil War Again 1945 -1949

Reasons for Success Peasant centered economy Aided by guerrilla soldiers Appeared highly nationalistic Included

Reasons for Success Peasant centered economy Aided by guerrilla soldiers Appeared highly nationalistic Included women

“[A] great many so-called intellectuals are actually exceedingly unlearned. . . The knowledge of

“[A] great many so-called intellectuals are actually exceedingly unlearned. . . The knowledge of workers and peasants is sometimes greater than theirs. ”

Declaration of the PRC, 1949

Declaration of the PRC, 1949

Mao’s Policies Soviet-Model Period (1949 -1957) Land reform Civil reform Five Year Plans

Mao’s Policies Soviet-Model Period (1949 -1957) Land reform Civil reform Five Year Plans

Mao’s Policies The Great Leap Forward (19581966) Focus on industry and agriculture Mass mobilization

Mao’s Policies The Great Leap Forward (19581966) Focus on industry and agriculture Mass mobilization Emphasis on party workers decentralization

Workers in the countryside Evening work on steel production

Workers in the countryside Evening work on steel production

Villagers Receive Tractors

Villagers Receive Tractors

The Great Leap Backward…

The Great Leap Backward…

Growing Divisions 1962 -1965 Mao Zedong vs. Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping charismatic leadership

Growing Divisions 1962 -1965 Mao Zedong vs. Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping charismatic leadership vs. bureaucracy

Mao’s Policies Cultural Revolution-1966 Following failure of the Great Leap Forward Remove vestiges of

Mao’s Policies Cultural Revolution-1966 Following failure of the Great Leap Forward Remove vestiges of Old China

Diplomatic Achievements 1971, PRC became the representative of China in UN (replaced ROC) 1972,

Diplomatic Achievements 1971, PRC became the representative of China in UN (replaced ROC) 1972, President Nixon visited Beijing

Death of Mao September 9, 1976

Death of Mao September 9, 1976

Gang of Four Humiliation October 1976

Gang of Four Humiliation October 1976

Architect of Reform Deng Xiaoping as the “general architect of reforms and opening up”

Architect of Reform Deng Xiaoping as the “general architect of reforms and opening up” (1978 -1997) Deng handpicked 3 successive CCP General Secretaries Zhao Ziyang (19871989) Jiang Zemin (19892002) Hu Jintao (20022012) It doesn't matter if a cat is black or white, so long as it catches mice.

Deng Xiaoping 4 Modernizations Industry, agriculture, science, military Opening trade Reforms in education

Deng Xiaoping 4 Modernizations Industry, agriculture, science, military Opening trade Reforms in education

Limited Capitalism Deng Xiaoping Allows Limited Capitalism and Market Economies to Improve China. Creates

Limited Capitalism Deng Xiaoping Allows Limited Capitalism and Market Economies to Improve China. Creates SEZ/Special Economic Zones for Free Markets-great economic success

But….

But….

Tiananmen Square Popular student lead protests in the Spring of 1989 Government said the

Tiananmen Square Popular student lead protests in the Spring of 1989 Government said the movement was counter-revolutionary and condemned it with the whole world watching

Hong Kong July 1, 1997

Hong Kong July 1, 1997

Socialist-Market Economy break the monopoly of state ownership 3 million private enterprises employ 43

Socialist-Market Economy break the monopoly of state ownership 3 million private enterprises employ 43 million people 24 million individual businesses employ 48 million people foreign-invested enterprises employ 9 million reforms of the state-owned enterprises transformation into joint-stock companies