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CHILDREN’S DOSAGE FORMS
• Children's dosage forms - a specific group of drugs that require special conditions of preparation, the strictest observance of asepsis, operational discipline, full responsibility for the preparation, quality control and design to dispense drugs.
Children's medicines - these are drugs that are allowed for use in pediatric practice in the relevant age child doses, the dosage forms that provide therapeutic benefits and convenience of currently
CLASSIFICATION PERIODS OF CHILDHOOD: - Infants (first 4 weeks of life) - Chest age (1 to 12 months) - Infancy (from one to three years) - Preschool age (from three to seven years old) - School age (from seven to eighteen years).
Requirements for children's medical forms High efficiency and high therapeutic bioavailability Sterility (for newborns); Stability; No pyrogenic (for Babies); Lack of allergic No toxic. Microbiological purity Ease of use Pleasant organoleptic properties (color, taste, effect, smell) should provide a positive psychological - physiological effects on a child (kind of dosage form, color, taste, effect, smell) - it is advisable not to use injections;
Drugs which are allowed to take in pediatric practice, shall not contain substances that affect the growth or development of tissues, lowers immunity, are toxic, do not contain preservatives and dyes. For example, violate Tetracycline tooth enamel in children, affecting the growth of bones, streptomycin and gentamicinum can cause lo toxicity. Prohibited medication containing alcohol for children under 1 year.
WHEN PRESCRIBING DRUGS TO CHILDREN SHOULD FOLLOW THESE GUIDELINES: Antibiotics and sulphamids set Assign only the intended according to etiology, the dose of medicine according to properties of microorganisms, not age, body weight. prescribe those drugs, which often cause side effects, be Conduct preliminary test of desirable after a preliminary test tolerance and sensitivity to for allergies and sensitivity to drugs intended (perhaps the appropriate groups A / B mother). (research and possibly mother) Consider the functional state Do not allow amplified drug of vital organs of the body. therapy for benign disease, medication use short courses. Do not use both drugs with the same mechanism of action.
FEATURES OF PRESCRIPTION DOSAGE FORM FOR CHILDREN. • Medications for children are issued on separate forms prescriptions marked "Baby" and point the exact age and weight of the child. • Taking prescription should be checked and potent doses of toxic substances and the compatibility of registered ingredients to consider the rationality of the combination of antibiotics, sulphanilamides and other drugs. • Doses of toxic and strong affective substances in suppositories , compare with doses for oral acceptance.
DOSAGE CHILDREN'S MEDICAL FORMS Carried out taking into account several factors which include: pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs; child's age and weight; the nature and severity of disease; state of the liver, kidneys, heart; individual sensitivity of the child; household conditions of life, especially food; climatic and geographical factors medical anamnesis.
TO DETERMINE DOSES OF DRUGS IN PEDIATRICS HAVE LONG USED TWO METHODS: Empirical - your dose of the drug calculated for children of different age groups based on the effect which was observed from the drug in varying doses. The method is based on the selection of doses that are determined by coeficients or special formulas.
EMPIRICAL WHEN THE DOSE OF MEDICATION TO REDUCE CHILDREN FROM ADULT DOSES ACCORDING TO AGE. IT IS NOT QUITE ACCURATE, AS CHILDREN THE SAME AGE HAVE DIFFERENT BODY WEIGHT, LODGING, MEALS, ETC. ACCORDING TO THE METHOD PRESCRIBED TO CHILDREN: LESS THAN 1 YEAR - 1 / 24 AND 1 / 12 OF THE ADULT DOSE; FROM 1 TO 2 YEARS - 1 / 12; FROM 2 TO 4 YEARS - 1 / 6; FROM D 4 TO 6 YEARS - 1 / 4; FROM 6 YEARS TO 7 YEARS - 1 / 3; FROM 7 YEARS TO 14 YEARS - 1 / 2; FROM 14 TO 18 - 3 / 4;
According to SPU dose for children can be expected depending on age, taking the dose per unit. For calculation drug dose can apply the formula: Child dose =dose of adult • weight of body of the child 70 Child dose = dose adult • child's age in years Child Age in years + 12 To calculate dose of sedative and narcotic drugs: Child dose = B (4 • а)+ 20 , 100 B - dose for adult a - the child's age in years.
ALL DOSAGE FORMS FOR CHILDREN PREPARING FOR THE GENERAL RULES OF PREPARATION. PREREQUISITE FOR PREPARING MEDICAL SUBSTANCES FOR CHILDREN UNDER 1 YEAR - STERILITY (MEDICINE FOR EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL USE, OIL) OR ASEPTIC MANUFACTURING (OINTMENTS, SUPPOSITORIES, POWDERS). ALL STERILIZATION MEDICATION TRY TO TASTE. POWDERS PREPARED FOR THE GENERAL RULES WITH SUBSEQUENT STERILIZATION IN AIR STERILIZER AT T = 180 ° C – 1 HOUR AND STORE 15 DAYS. TERMO LIABILITY SUBSTANCES ADDED IN ASEPTIC CONDITIONS. ALL DOSAGE FORMS FOR CHILDREN PREPARING FOR THE GENERAL RULES OF PREPARING. PREREQUISITE FOR LB FOR CHILDREN UNDER 1 YEAR - STERILITY (MEDICINE FOR EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL USE, OIL) OR ASEPTIC MANUFACTURING (OINTMENTS, SUPPOSITORIES, POWDERS). ALL STERILIZATION MEDICATION TO TRY TO TASTE. POWDERS PREPARED UNDER THE GENERAL RULES WITH SUBSEQUENT STERILIZATION IN AIR STERILIZER AT T = 180 ° C - 1: 00 AND STORE 15 DAYS. TERMO LIABILITY SUBSTANCES ADDED IN ASEPTIC CONDITIONS.
MIXTURES PREPARED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE ORDER № 197, "INSTRUCTIONS FOR PREPARATION OF LDF IN PHARMACIES. ” STERILIZING AT T = 120 ° C - 8 MINUTES. DO NOT USE PRESERVATIVES AND STABILIZERS. TO IMPROVE TASTE ADD FRUIT SYRUPS, LEMON ACID NOT ALLOW PACKING MORE THAN 100 ML PER PRESCRIPTION. SOLUTIO 0. 02% DYMEDROLI PACKING NO MORE THAN 10 ML. SOLUTIONS FOR EXTERNAL USE - THE SAME AS MEDICINE. OILS FOR CHILDREN, SUCH AS PEACH, OLIVE, SUNFLOWER, PETROLATUM IN STERILIZED IN THE BOTTLES FOR BLOOD SUBSTITUTES , T = 180 ° C - 30 MINUTES. MOST OF THESE DOSAGE FORMS ARE STORED FOR 30 DAYS.
Often used mixtures, suppositories, powders in pediatric practice. They are prepared by the general rules of preparation of medical forms for adults, following aseptic conditions Dosage form for infants must be sterile
The technological process of preparing children's medicine for babies includes the following stages: Preparation of aseptic conditions Preparation of dishes and accessories. Preparation of solvents and drugs. Dissolution of drugs. Quality control solutions. filtering solutions, checking the absence of mechanical inclusions. closing, preparation for sterilization (marking). Sterilization. Quality control and design of drugs for dispense.
Rp. : Phenobarbitali 0, 1 Solutionis Natrii bromidi 3% 100 ml Misce. Da. Signa. 1 teaspoon 3 times a day (child 3 weeks) higher single dose Phenobarbitali =0, 005 higher daily dose Phenobarbitali =0, 01
Design to dispence
RP. : SOL. GLUCOSI 10% - 100 ML ACIDI GLUTAMINICI 1, 0 M. D. S. TEASPOON THREE TIMES A DAY (CHILD 11 MONTHS)
WCP (R. S. ) GLUCOSE : 10. 0 ACIDI GLUTAMINICI 1. 0. SOLIDS SUBSTANCES> 3% CONSIDER RATE OF INCREASE OF AQUAE PURIFICATE 100 – (10 Х 0, 64+1 Х 0, 62) = 93 ML.
WCP (F. S. ) DATE № PRESCRIPTION AQUAE PURIFICATAE 93 ML. ACIDI GLUTAMINICI 1, 0 GLUCOSI 10, 0 V=100 ML STERILIS PREPARED CHECKED