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Chapter THREE Attitudes and Job Satisfaction © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Learning Objectives Ø Ø Ø Contrast terminal and instrumental values. Identify Hofstede’s five value dimensions of national culture. Contrast the three components of an attitude Identify the role that consistency plays in attitudes Summarize the relationship between attitudes and behavior Discuss similarities and differences between job satisfaction and other job attitudes discussed Ø Summarize the main causes of job satisfaction Ø Identify four employee responses to dissatisfaction © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Attitudes Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events. ( either favorable or unfavorable) © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Cognitive component The opinion or belief segment of an attitude. Affective Component The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude. Behavioral Component An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something.
Explanation Attitudes are not the same as values, but the two are interrelated. ”Discriminating is wrong” is a Value Statement. Such an opinion is the Cognitive component. (cognition – the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge through thought, experience and senses) It sets the stage for more critical part of an attitude – its Affective Component. Affect is the emotional or feeling segment of an attitude, and is reflected in the statement ” I do not like Jon because he dicriminates against miniorities”. Behavioral Component – of an attitude refers to an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something – I might choose to avoid Jon because of my feelings about him. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Types of Attitudes –three attitudes Job Satisfaction A collection of positive and/or negative feelings that an individual holds toward his or her job. Job Involvement Identifying with the job, actively participating in it, and considering performance important to self-worth. Organizational Commitment Identifying with a particular organization and its goals, and wishing to maintain membership in the organization. ( so, high job involvement means identifying with one’s specific job, while high OC means identifying with one’s employing org. ) © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Attitudes & Consistency Principal Ø Did you ever notice how people change what they say so it does not contradict what they do? Ø Research has generally concluded that people seek consistency among their attitudes & between their attitudes and their behavior. Ø Individuals seek to reconcile divergent attitudes and allign their attitudes & behavior so they appear rational and consistent. Ø When there is an inconsistency, forces are initiated to return the individual to an equilibirium state where attitudes & behavior are again consistent. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Attitudes & Consistency Principal Ø This can be done by altering either the attitudes or the behavior, or by developing a rationalization for the discrepancy. Ø Example: Ø How people cope up with the ongoing barrage of data linking cigarette smoking & negative health outcomes? Ø They can deny that any clear causation b/w smoking & cancer, for instance, has been established. Ø They can , either, accept the research evidence & begin actively working to make more healthy cigarettes or at least readuce their availability to teenagers. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Attitudes & Consistency Principal Ø Can we assume from this “consistency principle” that an individual’s behavior can always be predicted if we know his or her attitude on a subject? Ø For example, if Mr. A views his pay too low, will an increase in his salary will change his behavior, that is, make him work harder? Ø The answer to this is more complex than merely a Yes or No. Ø Theory of “Cognitive Dissonance” sought to explain the linkage b/w attitudes & behavior. Ø Dissonance means an inconsistency. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance • Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes. • Mr. Festinger argued that any form of inconsistency is uncomfortable & that individuals will attempt to reduce the dissonance and, hence the discomfort. • Individual will seek a stable state where there is a minimum of dissonance. • So how do people cope? Desire to reduce dissonance depends on • Importance of elements creating dissonance • Degree of influence individual believes, has over elements • Rewards involved in dissonance © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Example A corporate manager – Mrs. Smith – believes strongly that no company should pollute the air or water. Mrs. Smith is appointed as a decision maker to trade off between her firm`s profitability against her attitudes on pollution. Mrs. Smith knows that dumping the company`s waste into local river ( which is assumed legal) is in the best economic interest of her firm. What several paths, can she follow? (discussion) © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
several paths Ø She can change her behavior i. e. , stop polluting the river. Ø Or, she can reduce dissonance by concluding that the dissonant behavior is not so important after all – I have to make my living. Ø Or, she may change her attitude – there is nothing wrong with polluting the river. Ø Or, she may seek out more consonant elements to outweigh the dissonant ones – the benefits to society from manufacturing our products are more than the cost to society of the resulting water pollution. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Measuring the A-B Relationship Recent research indicates that attitudes (A) significantly predict behaviors (B) when moderating variables are taken into account. ( protecting the environment – recycling) A B Moderating Variables • Importance of the attitude • Specificity of the attitude • Social pressures on the individual • Direct experience with the attitude © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Self-Perception Theory Attitudes are used after the fact to make sense out of an action that has already occurred. ( when asked about an attitude toward some object, individuals recall their behavior relevant to that object & then infer their attitude from their past behavior ). And, B A! (Behaviors influence attitudes) ”It seems that we are very good at finding reasons for what we do, but not so good at doing what we find reasons for” © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Self-Perception Theory……. continued Ø Self-perception theory has been well supported. Ø Although the traditional attitude-behavior relationship is generally positive, the behaviorattitude relationship is stronger. Ø This is particularly true when attitudes are vague & ambiguous. Ø When you have had few experiences regarding an attitude issue or give little previous thought to it, you will tend to infer your attitudes from your behavior. Ø However, when your attitudes have been established for a while & are well defined, those attitudes are likely to guide your behavior. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
An Application: Attitude Surveys Draw out responses from employees through questionnaires about how they feel about their jobs, work groups, supervisors, and the organization. Using attitude surveys on a regular basis provides managers with valuable feedback on how employees perceive their working conditions. The use of regular attitude surveys can alert management to potential problems and employes`s intentions early so that the action can be taken to prevent repercussions. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Attitudes and Workforce Diversity Ø A comment to a coworker of the opposite sex, which 20 years ago might have been taken as a complement, can today become a career-limiting episode. Ø In diversity programs people are pressed to examine themselves & to confront ethnic & cultural stereotypes they might hold. Training activities that can reshape employee attitudes concerning diversity: – Participating in diversity training that provides for self-evaluation and group discussions. – Volunteer work in community and social serve centers with individuals of diverse backgrounds. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Sarah Palin (Republican vice-presidential nominee ) & Asif Zardari ( President of Pakistan) Ø “you are more gorgeous than you are on TV. Now I know why the whole America is crazy about you”. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Measuring Job Satisfaction – Single global rating: This method is nothing more than asking individuals to respond to one question such as “ All things considered, how satisfied are you with your job? ” Scale: 1 2 highly satisfied 3 4 5 highly dissatisfied – Summation score: This method identifies key elements in a job & tasks for the employee's feelings about each ( nature of work, supervision, present pay, promotion opportunities, and relations with co-workers etc. ) © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Causes of Job Satisfaction Ø Ø Ø Mentally Challenging work Equitable Rewards Supportive Working Conditions Supportive Colleagues Pay only influences Job Satisfaction to a point – After about $40, 000 a year, there is no relationship between amount of pay and job satisfaction. Ø Personality can influence job satisfaction – Negative people are usually not satisfied with their jobs © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
How Employees Can Express Dissatisfaction Exit Voice Behavior directed toward leaving the organization – Active and constructive attempts to improve conditionssuggesting improvements, discussing problems. looking for new job, resigning. Loyalty Passively but optimistically waiting for conditions to improve – trusting org. & management to do the right thing © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Neglect Passively allowing conditions to worsen- reduced effort, increased error rate.
The Effect of Job Satisfaction on Employee Performance Ø Satisfaction and Productivity – Satisfied workers are more productive AND more productive workers are more satisfied! – Worker productivity is higher in organizations with more satisfied workers. Ø Satisfaction and Absenteeism – Satisfied employees have fewer avoidable absences. Ø Satisfaction and Turnover – Satisfied employees are less likely to quit. – Organizations take actions to retain high performers and to weed out lower performers. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Job Satisfaction and OCB Ø Satisfaction and OCBs – Satisfied employees who feel fairly treated by and are trusting of the organization are more willing to engage in behaviors that go beyond the normal expectations of their job. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Job Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction Ø Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction – Satisfied workers provide better customer service Ø Satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction because: – They are more friendly, upbeat, and responsive. – They are less likely to turnover, which helps build long-term customer relationships. – They are experienced. Ø Dissatisfied customers increase employee job dissatisfaction. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Chapter Check-Up: Attitudes In general, when we think of attitudes and organizations, we think of 1) Job Satisfaction 2) Happiness 3) Job Involvement 4) Mood at work 5) Organizational Commitment 6) 1 and 2 7) 1, 3, and 5 © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Chapter Check-Up: Attitudes Ernesto is the known as the Donut Hut King---every day he brings donuts and coffee to the office for everyone. He says it helps everyone think more clearly! Ernesto is demonstrating 1. Job satisfaction 2. Organizational citizenship behavior 3. Productivity 4. Job involvement 5. Conscientiousness Write down three things someone could do at work that would constitute an OCB. Compare your list with a neighbor’s. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.