Chapter Five Consumer Markets and Consumer Buyer Behavior

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Chapter Five Consumer Markets and Consumer Buyer Behavior Chapter 5 - slide

Chapter Five Consumer Markets and Consumer Buyer Behavior Chapter 5 - slide

Consumer Markets and Consumer Buyer Behavior Topic Outline • Model of Consumer Behavior •

Consumer Markets and Consumer Buyer Behavior Topic Outline • Model of Consumer Behavior • Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior • Types of Buying Decision Behaviors • The Buyer Decision Process for New Products Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 5 - slide 2

Model of Consumer Behavior Consumer buyer behavior refers to the buying behavior of final

Model of Consumer Behavior Consumer buyer behavior refers to the buying behavior of final consumers—individuals and households who buy goods and services for personal consumption Consumer market refers to all of the personal consumption of final consumers Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 5 - slide 3

Model of Consumer Behavior • Consumers make many buying decisions every day, and the

Model of Consumer Behavior • Consumers make many buying decisions every day, and the buying decision is the focal point of the marketer’s effort. – Most large companies research consumer buying decisions in great detail to answer questions about what consumers buy – Marketers can study actual consumer purchases to find out. But learning about the whys of consumer buying behavior is not so easy— Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 5 - slide 4 Publishing as Prentice Hall

Model of Consumer Behavior • The central question for marketers is as follows: How

Model of Consumer Behavior • The central question for marketers is as follows: How do consumers respond to various marketing efforts the company might use • The starting point is the stimulus-response model of buyer behavior • Marketing and other stimuli enter the consumer’s “black box” and produce Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. certain responses Chapter 5 - slide 5 Publishing as Prentice Hall

Model of Consumer Behavior • Marketers want to understand how the stimuli are changed

Model of Consumer Behavior • Marketers want to understand how the stimuli are changed into responses inside the consumer’s black box. • First, the buyer’s characteristics influence how he or she perceives and reacts to the stimuli. • Second, the buyer’s decision process itself affects his or her behavior. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 5 - slide 6

Model of Consumer Behavior All these inputs enter the buyer’s black box, where they

Model of Consumer Behavior All these inputs enter the buyer’s black box, where they are turned into a set of buyer responses: what he or she buys, when, where, and how often. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 5 - slide 7

Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 5 - slide 8

Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Culture is the most basic cause of person’s want and

Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Culture is the most basic cause of person’s want and behavior. Growing up child learns basic values, perceptions, wants, and behavior from family and other important institutions. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 5 - slide 9

Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Subcultures are groups of people within a culture with shared

Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Subcultures are groups of people within a culture with shared value systems based on common life experiences and situations • Bengalis • Gujaratis • Punjabis Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 5 - slide 10

Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Social classes are society’s relatively permanent and ordered divisions whose

Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Social classes are society’s relatively permanent and ordered divisions whose members share similar values, interests, and behaviors • Measured by a combination of occupation, income, education, wealth, and other variables Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 5 - slide 11

Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Groups and Social Networks Membership Groups • Groups with direct

Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Groups and Social Networks Membership Groups • Groups with direct influence and to which a person belongs Aspirational Groups • Groups an individual wishes to belong to Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Reference Groups • Groups that form a comparison or reference in forming attitudes or behavior Chapter 5 - slide 12

Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Groups and Social Networks • Word-of-mouth influence and buzz marketing

Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Groups and Social Networks • Word-of-mouth influence and buzz marketing – Opinion leaders are people within a reference group who exert social influence on others – Marketers identify them to use as brand ambassadors Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 5 - slide 13

Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Groups and Social Networks • Online Social Networks are online

Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Groups and Social Networks • Online Social Networks are online communities where people socialize or exchange information and opinions • Include blogs, social networking sites (facebook), virtual worlds (second life) Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 5 - slide 14

Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Social Factors • Family is the most important consumerbuying organization

Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Social Factors • Family is the most important consumerbuying organization in society • The groups, family, clubs, and organizations that a person belongs to define his/her social role and status Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 5 - slide 15

Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Personal Factors Occupation affects the goods and services bought by

Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Personal Factors Occupation affects the goods and services bought by consumers Economic situation includes trends in: Personal income Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Savings Interest rates Chapter 5 - slide 16

Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Personal Factors Lifestyle is a person’s pattern of living as

Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Personal Factors Lifestyle is a person’s pattern of living as expressed in his or her psychographics • Measures a consumer’s AIOs (activities, interests, opinions) to capture information about a person’s pattern of acting and interacting in the environment • It profiles a person’s whole pattern of acting and interacting in the world. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 5 - slide 17

Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Personal Factors • Personality and self-concept – Personality refers to

Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Personal Factors • Personality and self-concept – Personality refers to the unique psychological characteristics that lead to consistent and lasting responses to the consumer’s environment usually described in terms of traits as self confidence, dominance, sociability, aggressiveness, adaptability. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 5 - slide 18

Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Psychological Factors Motivation Perception Learning Beliefs and attitudes Copyright ©

Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Psychological Factors Motivation Perception Learning Beliefs and attitudes Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 5 - slide 19

Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Psychological Factors Motivation A motive is a need that is

Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Psychological Factors Motivation A motive is a need that is sufficiently pressing to direct the person to seek satisfaction Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 5 - slide 20

Characteristics Affecting Maslow’s Consumer Behavior Hierarchy of Needs People are driven by particular needs

Characteristics Affecting Maslow’s Consumer Behavior Hierarchy of Needs People are driven by particular needs at particular times Human needs are arranged in a hierarchy from most pressing to least pressing Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 5 - slide 21

Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Psychological Factors Perception is the process by which people select,

Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Psychological Factors Perception is the process by which people select, organize, and interpret information to form a meaningful picture of the world from three perceptual processes – Selective attention – Selective distortion – Selective retention Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 5 - slide 22

Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Psychological Factors Selective attention is the tendency for people to

Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Psychological Factors Selective attention is the tendency for people to screen out most of the information to which they are exposed Selective distortion is the tendency for people to interpret information in a way that will support what they already believe Selective retention is the tendency to remember good points made about a brand they favor and forget good points about competing brands Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 5 - slide 23

Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Psychological Factors • Learning is the change in an individual’s

Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Psychological Factors • Learning is the change in an individual’s behavior arising from experience Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 5 - slide 24

Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Psychological Factors Beliefs and Attitudes Belief : A belief is

Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Psychological Factors Beliefs and Attitudes Belief : A belief is a descriptive thought that a person has about something. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 5 - slide 25

Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Psychological Factors Attitudes describe a person’s relatively consistent evaluations, feelings,

Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Psychological Factors Attitudes describe a person’s relatively consistent evaluations, feelings, and tendencies toward an object or idea Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 5 - slide 26

Types of Buying Decision Behavior Complex buying behavior Dissonance-reducing buying behavior Habitual buying behavior

Types of Buying Decision Behavior Complex buying behavior Dissonance-reducing buying behavior Habitual buying behavior Variety-seeking buying behavior Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 5 - slide 27

Types of Buying Decision Behavior Complex Buying Behavior When consumers are highly motivated in

Types of Buying Decision Behavior Complex Buying Behavior When consumers are highly motivated in a purchase and perceive significant differences among brands Purchasers are highly motivated when: • Product is expensive • Product is risky • Product is purchased infrequently • Product is highly self-expressive Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5 -34 Chapter 5 - slide 28

Types of Buying Decision Behavior Dissonance-reducing buying behavior occurs when consumers are highly involved

Types of Buying Decision Behavior Dissonance-reducing buying behavior occurs when consumers are highly involved with an expensive, infrequent, or risky purchase, but see little difference among brands Post-purchase dissonance occurs when the consumer notices certain disadvantages of the product purchased or hears favorable things about a product not purchased Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5 -35 Chapter 5 - slide 29

Types of Buying Decision Behavior Habitual buying behavior occurs when consumers have low involvement

Types of Buying Decision Behavior Habitual buying behavior occurs when consumers have low involvement and there is little significant brand difference Variety-seeking buying behavior occurs when consumers have low involvement and there are significant brand differences Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5 -36 Chapter 5 - slide 30

The Buyer Decision Process Need Recognition Need recognition occurs when the buyer recognizes a

The Buyer Decision Process Need Recognition Need recognition occurs when the buyer recognizes a problem or need triggered by: • Internal stimuli • External stimuli Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5 -38 Chapter 5 - slide 31

The Buyer Decision Process Information Search Information search is the amount of information needed

The Buyer Decision Process Information Search Information search is the amount of information needed in the buying process and depends on the strength of the drive, the amount of information you start with, the ease of obtaining the information, the value placed on the additional information, and the satisfaction from searching Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5 -39 Chapter 5 - slide 32

The Buyer Decision Process Information Search Sources of information: Personal sources—family and friends Commercial

The Buyer Decision Process Information Search Sources of information: Personal sources—family and friends Commercial sources—advertising, Internet Public sources—mass media, consumer organizations Experiential sources—handling, examining, using the product Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5 -40 Chapter 5 - slide 33

The Buyer Decision Process Evaluation of Alternatives Evaluation of alternatives is how the consumer

The Buyer Decision Process Evaluation of Alternatives Evaluation of alternatives is how the consumer processes information to arrive at brand choices Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5 -41 Chapter 5 - slide 34

The Buyer Decision Process Purchase Decision The purchase decision is the act by the

The Buyer Decision Process Purchase Decision The purchase decision is the act by the consumer to buy the most preferred brand The purchase decision can be affected by: • Attitudes of others • Unexpected situational factors Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5 -42 Chapter 5 - slide 35

The Buyer Decision Process Post-Purchase Decision The post-purchase decision is the satisfaction or dissatisfaction

The Buyer Decision Process Post-Purchase Decision The post-purchase decision is the satisfaction or dissatisfaction the consumer feels about the purchase Relationship between: • Consumer’s expectations • Product’s perceived performance Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5 -43 Chapter 5 - slide 36

The Buyer Decision Process Post-Purchase Decision The larger the gap between expectation and performance,

The Buyer Decision Process Post-Purchase Decision The larger the gap between expectation and performance, the greater the consumer’s dissatisfaction Cognitive dissonance is the discomfort caused by a post-purchase conflict Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5 -44 Chapter 5 - slide 37

The Buyer Decision Process Post-Purchase Decision Customer satisfaction is a key to building profitable

The Buyer Decision Process Post-Purchase Decision Customer satisfaction is a key to building profitable relationships with consumers —to keeping and growing consumers and reaping their customer lifetime value Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5 -45 Chapter 5 - slide 38

The Buyer Decision Process for New Products New product is a good, service, or

The Buyer Decision Process for New Products New product is a good, service, or idea that is perceived by some potential customers as new Adoption process is the mental process an individual goes through from first learning about an innovation to final regular use Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5 -46 Chapter 5 - slide 39

The Buyer Decision Process for New Products Stages in the Adoption Process 1. 2.

The Buyer Decision Process for New Products Stages in the Adoption Process 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Awareness Interest Evaluation Trial Adoption Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5 -47 Chapter 5 - slide 40

The Buyer Decision Process for New Products Stages in the Adoption Process Awareness is

The Buyer Decision Process for New Products Stages in the Adoption Process Awareness is when the consumer becomes aware of the new product but lacks information Interest is when the consumer seeks information about the new product Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5 -48 Chapter 5 - slide 41

The Buyer Decision Process for New Products Stages in the Adoption Process Evaluation is

The Buyer Decision Process for New Products Stages in the Adoption Process Evaluation is when the consumer considers whether trying the new product makes sense Trial is when the consumer tries the new product to improve his or her estimate of value Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5 -49 Chapter 5 - slide 42

The Buyer Decision Process for New Products Stages in the Adoption Process Adoption is

The Buyer Decision Process for New Products Stages in the Adoption Process Adoption is when the consumer decides to make full and regular use of the product Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5 -50 Chapter 5 - slide 43

The Buyer Decision Process for New Products Individual Differences in Innovation Early adopters are

The Buyer Decision Process for New Products Individual Differences in Innovation Early adopters are opinion leaders and adopt new ideas early but cautiously Early majority are deliberate and adopt new ideas before the average person Late majority are skeptical and adopt new ideas only after the majority of people have tried it Laggards are suspicious of changes and adopt new ideas only when they become tradition Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5 -51 Chapter 5 - slide 44

The Buyer Decision Process for New Products Influence of Product Characteristics on Rate of

The Buyer Decision Process for New Products Influence of Product Characteristics on Rate of Adoption Relative advantage is the degree to which an innovation appears to be superior to existing products Compatibility is the degree to which an innovation fits the values and experiences of potential consumers Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5 -52 Chapter 5 - slide 45

The Buyer Decision Process for New Products Influence of Product Characteristics on Rate of

The Buyer Decision Process for New Products Influence of Product Characteristics on Rate of Adoption Complexity is the degree to which the innovation is difficult to understand or use Divisibility is the degree to which the innovation may be tried on a limited basis Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 5 -53 Chapter 5 - slide 46

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 5 - slide 47