Chapter 9 Passive Remote Sensing Introduction to Remote

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Chapter 9 Passive Remote Sensing Introduction to Remote Sensing Instructor: Dr. Cheng-Chien Liu Department

Chapter 9 Passive Remote Sensing Introduction to Remote Sensing Instructor: Dr. Cheng-Chien Liu Department of Earth Sciences National Cheng-Kung University Last updated: 16 December 2004

Introduction § Optical range 0. 3 m m~14 m m • • Landsat series

Introduction § Optical range 0. 3 m m~14 m m • • Landsat series SPOT series High spatial resolution High spectral resolution

Landsat satellite program overview § Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) 1967 • • ERTS-1,

Landsat satellite program overview § Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) 1967 • • ERTS-1, 1972~1978 Nimbus weather satellite modified Experimental system test feasibility Open skies principle § Landsat-2, 1975 (ERTS-2)

Landsat satellite program overview (cont. ) § Table 6. 1: Characteristics of Landsat 1~6

Landsat satellite program overview (cont. ) § Table 6. 1: Characteristics of Landsat 1~6 • • Return Beam Vidicon (RBV) camera systems Multispectral Scanner system (MSS) Thematic Mapper (TM) Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) § Table 6. 2: Sensors used on Landsat 1~6 missions

Orbit characteristic of Landsat-1, -2, and – 3 § Fig 6. 1: Landsat –

Orbit characteristic of Landsat-1, -2, and – 3 § Fig 6. 1: Landsat – 1, -2, and – 3 observatory configuration • 3 m x 1. 5 m, 4 m width of solar panels, 815 kg, 900 km • Inclination = 90 • To= 103 min/orbit § Fig 6. 2: Typical Landsat-1, -2 and – 3 daily orbit pattern • Successive orbits are about 2760 km • Swath: 185 km • Orbital procession 18 days for coverage repetition 20 times of global coverage per year

Orbit characteristic of Landsat-1, -2, and – 3 (cont. ) § Sun-synchronous orbit •

Orbit characteristic of Landsat-1, -2, and – 3 (cont. ) § Sun-synchronous orbit • 9: 42 am early morning skies are generally clearer than later in the day • Pros: repeatable sun illumination conditions on the same day in every year • Cons: variable sun illumination conditions with different locations and seasons variations in atmospheric conditions

Sensors onboard Landsat-1, -2 and – 3 § 3 -Channel RBV • 185 km

Sensors onboard Landsat-1, -2 and – 3 § 3 -Channel RBV • 185 km x 185 km • Ground resolution: 80 m • Spectral bands: 1: 0. 475 mm~0. 575 mm (green) 2: 0. 580 mm~0. 680 mm (red) 3: 0. 690 mm~0. 830 mm (NIR) • Expose photosensitive surface scan video signal • Pros: v. Greater cartographic fidelity v. Reseau grid geometric correction in the recording process

Sensors onboard Landsat-1, -2 and – 3 (cont. ) § 3 -Channel RBV (cont.

Sensors onboard Landsat-1, -2 and – 3 (cont. ) § 3 -Channel RBV (cont. ) • Landsat-1: malfunction only 1690 scenes • Landsat-2 only for engineering evaluation only occasionally RBV imagery was obtained. • Landsat-3 v. Single broad band (0. 505~0. 75 u mm) v 2. 6 times of resolution improved: 30 m double f v. Two-camera side-by-side configuration with side-lap and end-lap. (Fig 6. 5) v. Fig 6. 6: Landsat-3 RBV image

Sensors onboard Landsat-1, -2 and – 3 (cont. ) § 4 Channel MSS •

Sensors onboard Landsat-1, -2 and – 3 (cont. ) § 4 Channel MSS • 185 km x 185 km • Ground resolution: 79 m • Spectral band: v. Band 4: 0. 5 mm ~ 0. 6 mm (green) v. Band 5: 0. 6 mm ~ 0. 7 mm (red) v. Band 6: 0. 7 mm ~ 0. 8 mm (NIR) v. Band 7: 0. 8 mm ~ 0. 9 mm (NIR) v. Band 8: 10. 4~12. 6 um Landsat-3, failed v. Band 4~7 band 1~4 in Landsat-4, -5 v. Fig 6. 7: Comparison of spectral bands

Sensors onboard Landsat-1, -2 and – 3 (cont. ) § 4 Channel MSS (cont.

Sensors onboard Landsat-1, -2 and – 3 (cont. ) § 4 Channel MSS (cont. ) • Fig 6. 8: Landsat MSS operating configuration v. Small TFOV use an oscillating scan mirror • A-to-D converter (6 bits) v. Pixel width: 56 m x 79 m set by the pixel sampling rate (Fig 6. 9) v. Each Landsat MSS scene 185 km x 185 km Ø 2340 scan lines, 3240 pixels per line, 4 bands Ø Enormous data v. Fig 6. 10: Full-frame, band 5, Landsat MSS scene Ø Parallelogram earth’s rotation Ø 15 steps Ø Tick marks Lat. Long. Ø Annotation block • Color composite: band 4 (b), band 5 (g), band 7(r) (Fig 6. 7)

Sensors onboard Landsat-1, -2 and – 3 (cont. ) § Data distribution • Experiment

Sensors onboard Landsat-1, -2 and – 3 (cont. ) § Data distribution • Experiment transitional operational • NASA NOAA NASA USGS EOSAT USGS Landsat-1, -2, -3 Landsat-4, -5, -6 Landsat-7 Department of Interior Department of Commerce • Data receiving station • Data reprocessing • Data catalogue Department of Defense

Orbit characteristics of Landsat-4 and -5 § Fig 6. 20: Sun-synchronous orbit of Landsat

Orbit characteristics of Landsat-4 and -5 § Fig 6. 20: Sun-synchronous orbit of Landsat 4 and – 5 • Altitude: 900 705 km v. Retrievable by the space shuttle v. Ground resolutions • • • Inclination 98. 20 T=99 min 14. 5 orbit/day 9: 45 am Fig 6. 21: adjacent orbit space = 2752 km 16 -day repeat cycle 8 -day phase between Landsat-4 and – 5 (Fig 6. 22)

Sensors onboard Landsat-4 and -5 § Fig 6. 23: Landsat-4 and – 5 observatory

Sensors onboard Landsat-4 and -5 § Fig 6. 23: Landsat-4 and – 5 observatory configuration • MSS, TM • 2000 kg, 1. 5 x 2. 3 m solar panels x 4 on one side • High gain antenna Tracking and Data Relay Satellite system (TDRSS) • Direct transmission X-band S-band v. MSS: 15 Mbps v. TM: 85 Mbps

Sensors onboard Landsat-4 and – 5 (cont. ) § MSS • Same as previous

Sensors onboard Landsat-4 and – 5 (cont. ) § MSS • Same as previous except for larger TFOV for keeping the same ground resolution (79 m 82 m) • Renumber bands § TM • • 7 bands (Table 6. 3) DN: 6 8 bits Ground resolution: 30 m (thermal band: 120 m) Geometric correction Space Oblique Mercator (SOM) cartographic projection

Sensors onboard Landsat-4 and – 5 (cont. ) § TM (cont. ) • Bi-directional

Sensors onboard Landsat-4 and – 5 (cont. ) § TM (cont. ) • Bi-directional scan the rate of oscillation of mirror dwelling time geometric integrity signal-to-noise • Detector: v. MSS: 6 x 4=24 v. TM: 16 x 6+4 x 1=100 • Fig 6. 14: Thematic Mapper optical path and projection of IFOV on earth surface • Fig 6. 15: Schematic of TM scan line correction process

Landsat-6 planned mission § A failed mission § Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) • TM+

Landsat-6 planned mission § A failed mission § Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) • TM+ panchromatic band (0. 5~0. 9 mm) with 15 m resolution pan sharpening • Monolithic detector design coregister • Set 9 -bit A-to-D converter to a high or low gain 8 -bit setting from the ground. v. Low reflectance water high gain v. Bright region deserts low gain

Landsat-7 § Launch: 1999 § Web site: http: //landsat. gsfc. nasa. gov § Landsat

Landsat-7 § Launch: 1999 § Web site: http: //landsat. gsfc. nasa. gov § Landsat 7 handbook § Landsat 7 in orbit § Depiction of Landsat 7

Landsat-7 (cont. ) § Landsat 7 Orbit • Orbital paths • Swath pattern §

Landsat-7 (cont. ) § Landsat 7 Orbit • Orbital paths • Swath pattern § Landsat data • http: //landsat. gsfc. nasa. gov/main/data. html

Landsat-7 (cont. ) § Payload • Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) v. Dual mode

Landsat-7 (cont. ) § Payload • Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) v. Dual mode solar calibrator v. Data transmission Ø TDRSS or stored on board. v. GPS subsequent geometric processing of the data • High Resolution Multi-spectral Stereo Imager (HRMSI) v 5 m panchromatic band v 10 m ETM bands 1~4 v. Pointable revisit time (<3 days) Stereo imaging. v 00~380 cross-track and 00~300 along-track

Landsat-7 (cont. ) § Application • Monitoring Temperate Forests • Mapping Volcanic Surface Deposits

Landsat-7 (cont. ) § Application • Monitoring Temperate Forests • Mapping Volcanic Surface Deposits • Three Dimensional Land Surface Simulations

Landsat TM Image interpretation § Pros: • Spectral and radiometric resolution • Ground resolution

Landsat TM Image interpretation § Pros: • Spectral and radiometric resolution • Ground resolution § Fig 6. 26: MSS vs TM § Fig 6. 27: All seven TM bands for a summertime image of an urban fringe area • • Lake, river, ponds: b 1, 2 > b 3 > b 4=b 5=b 7=0 Road urban streets: b 4 min Agricultural crops: b 4 max Golf courses

Landsat TM Image interpretation (cont. ) § Fig 6. 27 (cont. ) • Glacial

Landsat TM Image interpretation (cont. ) § Fig 6. 27 (cont. ) • Glacial ice movement: upper right lower left v. Drumlins, scoured bedrock hills v. Band 7 resample from 120 m to 30 m § Plate 12 + Table 6. 5: TM band color combinations • (a): normal color mapping of water sediment patterns • (b): color infrared mapping urban features and vegetation types • (c)(d): false color

Landsat TM Image interpretation (cont. ) § Fig 6. 28: Landsat TM band 6

Landsat TM Image interpretation (cont. ) § Fig 6. 28: Landsat TM band 6 (thermal infrared) image • Correlation with field observations 6 gray levels 6 T § Plate 13: color-composite Landsat TM image • Extremely hot blackbody radiation thermal infrared • TM bands 3, 4 and 7

Landsat TM Image interpretation (cont. ) § Fig 6. 29: Landsat TM band 5

Landsat TM Image interpretation (cont. ) § Fig 6. 29: Landsat TM band 5 (midinfrared) image • Timber clear-cutting § Fig 6. 30: Landsat TM band 3, 4 and 5 composite • Extensive deforestation. § Fig 6. 31: Landsat TM band 4 image map • 13 individual TM scenes + mosaic

SPOT Satellite Program § Background • French+Sweden+Belgium • 1978 • Commercially oriented program §

SPOT Satellite Program § Background • French+Sweden+Belgium • 1978 • Commercially oriented program § SPOT-1 • • French Guiana, Ariane Rocket 1986 Linear array sensor+pushbroom scanning+pointable Full-scene stereoscopic imaging

SPOT Satellite Program (cont. ) § SPOT-2 • 1990 § SPOT-3 • 1993

SPOT Satellite Program (cont. ) § SPOT-2 • 1990 § SPOT-3 • 1993

Orbit characteristics of SPOT-1, -2 and -3 § Orbit • • • Circular, near-polar,

Orbit characteristics of SPOT-1, -2 and -3 § Orbit • • • Circular, near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit Altitude: 832 km Inclination: 98. 70 Descend across the equator at 10: 30 AM Repeat: 26 days Fig 6. 21: SPOT revisit pattern at latitude 450 and 00 v. At equator: 7 viewing opportunities exist v. At 450: 11 viewing opportunities exist

Sensors onboard SPOT-1, -2 and -3 § Configuration (Fig 6. 34) • 2 2

Sensors onboard SPOT-1, -2 and -3 § Configuration (Fig 6. 34) • 2 2 3. 5 m, 1750 kg, solar panel: 15. 6 m • Modular design § High Resolution Visible (HRV) imaging system • 2 -mode v 10 m-resolution panchromatic mode (0. 51~0. 73 mm) v 20 m-resolution color-infrared mode. (0. 5~0. 59 mm, 0. 61~0. 68 mm, 0. 79~0. 89 mm)

Sensors onboard SPOT-1, -2 and – 3 (cont. ) § HRV (cont. ) •

Sensors onboard SPOT-1, -2 and – 3 (cont. ) § HRV (cont. ) • Pushbroom scanning v. No moving part (mirror) lifespan v. Dwell time v. Geometric error • 4 -CCD subarray v 6000 -element subarray panchromatic mode, 10 m v. Three 3000 -element subarrays multi-spectral mode, 20 m v 8 -bit, 25 Mbps • Twin-HRV instruments v. IFOV (for each instrument) 4. 130 v. Swath: 60 km 2 - 3 km = 117 km (Fig 3. 36) v. TFOV (for each instrument) 270=0. 60 45 (Fig 3. 35)

Sensors onboard SPOT-1, -2 and – 3 (cont. ) § HRV (cont. ) •

Sensors onboard SPOT-1, -2 and – 3 (cont. ) § HRV (cont. ) • Data streams v. Although 2 -mode can be operated simultaneously, only one mode data can be transmitted limitation of data stream • Stereoscopic imaging v. Off-nadir viewing capability (Fig 6. 37) v. Frequency revisit schedule (Fig 6. 33) v. Base-height ratio latitude Ø 0. 75 at equator, 0. 5 at 450 • Control v. Ground control station Toulouse, France observation sequence v. Receiving station Tordouse or Kiruna, Sweden Ø Tape recorded onboard Ø Transmitted within 2600 km-radius around the station

SPOT HRV image interpretation § Fig 6. 38: SPOT-1 panchromatic image • 10 m-resolution

SPOT HRV image interpretation § Fig 6. 38: SPOT-1 panchromatic image • 10 m-resolution v. Cf: Landsat MSS 80 m v. Cf: Landsat TM 30 m (Fig 6. 26) v. Cf: Landsat ETM 15 m (Fig 6. 32) • • Fig 6. 39: SPOT-1 panchromatic image Plate 14: merge of multispectral & panchromatic data Fig 6. 40: SPOT-1 panchromatic image stereopair Plate 15: Perspective view of Alps v. SPOT stereopair + parallax calculation v. Plate 23 • Fig 6. 41: before and after the earthquake

SPOT – 4 and – 5 § SPOT – 4 • Launched 1998 •

SPOT – 4 and – 5 § SPOT – 4 • Launched 1998 • Vegetation Monitoring Instrument (VMI) v. Swath: 2000 km daily global coverage v. Resolution: 1 km v. Spectral band: b(0. 43~0. 47 mm), g(0. 5~0. 59 mm), r(0. 61~0. 68 mm), N-IR(0. 79~0. 89 mm), mid-IR(1. 58~1. 75 mm)

SPOT – 4 and – 5 (cont. ) § SPOT – 5 • Launched

SPOT – 4 and – 5 (cont. ) § SPOT – 5 • Launched 2002 • Vegetation Monitoring Instrument (VMI) v. Swath: 2000 km daily global coverage v. Resolution: 1 km v. Spectral band: b(0. 43~0. 47 mm), g(0. 5~0. 59 mm), r(0. 61~0. 68 mm), N-IR(0. 79~0. 89 mm), mid-IR(1. 58~1. 75 mm)

Earth Observing System § Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) • Aims: providing the observations,

Earth Observing System § Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) • Aims: providing the observations, understanding, and modeling capabilities needed assess the impacts of natural events and human-induced activities on the earth’s environment • Data and information system: acquire, archive and distribute the data and information collected about the earth • Further international understanding of the earth as a system

Earth Observing System (cont. ) § EOS (Table 6. 19) • • • ASTER

Earth Observing System (cont. ) § EOS (Table 6. 19) • • • ASTER CERES MISR MODIS MOPITT § MODIS (Table 6. 20) • Table 6. 20 • Terra: 2000 • Aqua: 2002 § ASTER (Table 6. 21)

Hign-resolution satellite system § CORONA • 1960 – 1972, declassified in 1995 • KH-1

Hign-resolution satellite system § CORONA • 1960 – 1972, declassified in 1995 • KH-1 ~ KH-4 B ~ KH-5 v. Camera + film v. Band resolution • Web site: http: //earthexplorer. usgs. gov • Impacts

Hign-resolution satellite system (cont. ) § IKONOS • 1999 by Space imaging • Bands

Hign-resolution satellite system (cont. ) § IKONOS • 1999 by Space imaging • Bands and resolution v 1 m-resolution Ø 0. 45 – 0. 90 mm v 4 m-resolution Ø 0. 45 – 0. 52 mm Ø 0. 52 – 0. 60 mm Ø 0. 63 – 0. 69 mm Ø 0. 76 – 0. 90 mm • Orbit: sun-synchronous • Repeat coverage: 1. 5 (1 m) ~ 3 (4 m) days

Hign-resolution satellite system (cont. ) § Orb. View– 3 and – 4 • •

Hign-resolution satellite system (cont. ) § Orb. View– 3 and – 4 • • http: //www. orbimage. com Orb. View-2: Sea. Wi. FS Will be launched soon! Similar bands and resolution as IKONOS § Orb. View– 4 • 200 spectral channels in the range 0. 45 – 2. 5 m m at 8 m resolution

Hign-resolution satellite system (cont. ) § Quick. Bird • 2001 by Earth. Watch Inc.

Hign-resolution satellite system (cont. ) § Quick. Bird • 2001 by Earth. Watch Inc. • Bands and resolution v 61 cm-resolution Ø 0. 45 – 0. 89 mm v 2. 44 m-resolution Ø 0. 45 – 0. 52 mm Ø 0. 52 – 0. 60 mm Ø 0. 63 – 0. 69 mm Ø 0. 76 – 0. 89 mm

Hyperspectral satellite system (cont. ) § Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) • NASA + USGS

Hyperspectral satellite system (cont. ) § Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) • NASA + USGS v 21 November 2000 v. One-year technology validation/demonstration mission v. Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) • Hyperion • ALI