Chapter 8 Skin Disorders & Diseases
Learning Objectives • Identify and describe common skin lesions, differentiating between primary and secondary lesions. • List and describe common disorders of the sebaceous glands. • List and describe common changes in skin pigmentation. • Identify the forms of skin cancer including symptoms and mortality rates. • Identify and describe the major causes of acne and current treatments. (continues)
Learning Objectives (continued) • List the factors that contribute to the aging of the skin. • Explain the effects of exposure to the sun on the skin. • Describe contact dermatitis and prevention measures for cosmetologists.
Introduction • Skin care specialists are in high. • Some stylists find caring for the skin less arduous and physically demanding • Skin care is an area of rapid change and growth • Knowing the basics of skin care and how the skin functions will allow you to advise clients on their skin care regimens when they seek your professional opinion.
Identify Disorders and Diseases of the Skin • Dermatologist – a physician who specializes in diseases and disorders of the skin, hair, and nails • Clients with inflamed skin disorders, whether infectious or not, should not be served in the salon.
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Lesions of the Skin • A lesion is a mark on the skin or structural change in tissues caused by injury or disease.
Primary Lesions of the Skin Bulla – blister Macule – small, discolored spot or patch Cyst – sac containing fluid pus Nodule – solid bump larger than 0. 4 inches (continues)
Primary Lesions of the Skin (continued) Papule – pimple Tumor – abnormal cell mass Pustule – raised, inflamed pimple (continues)
Primary Lesions of the Skin (continued) Vesicle – small blister with clear fluid Wheal – itchy, swollen lesion (hives)
Secondary Lesions Crust – dead cells formed over a wound or blemish Fissure – crack in the skin Excoriation – skin sore or abrasion (continues)
Secondary Lesions (continued) Keloid – thick scar Scar or cicatrix – lightcolored, slightly raised mark on skin Scale – thin plate of epidermal flakes Ulcer – open lesion with pus
Identify Disorders of the Sebaceous (Oil) Glands • Comedones – open, closed • Milia – benign, keratin-filled cyst www. dermnet. com Courtesy Mark Lees Skin Care, Inc. • Acne – common pimples (continues)
Identify Disorders of the Sebaceous (Oil) Glands (continued) • Sebaceous cyst – large, protruding, pocketlike lesion filled with sebum • Seborrheic dermatitis – inflammation of the sebaceous glands • Rosacea – chronic inflammatory congestion of the cheeks and nose
Identify Disorders of the Sudoriferous (Sweat) Gland • Anhidrosis – lack of perspiration • Bromidrosis – foul-smelling perspiration • Hyperhidrosis – excessive perspiration • Miliaria rubra – prickly heat
Recognize Inflammations and Common Infections of the Skin www. dermnet. com • Conjunctivitis – pinkeye • Dermatitis – inflammatory skin condition • Eczema – acute, chronic lesions (dry or moist) (continues)
Recognize Inflammations and Common Infections of the Skin (continued) • Impetigo – weeping lesions • Psoriasis – common, chronic, inflammatory skin disease © Levent Konuk/Shutterstock. com • Herpes simplex – fever blisters
Recognize Pigment Disorders of the Skin • Hyperpigmentation • Hypopigmentation • Albinism • Lentigines • Leukoderma www. dermnet. com • Chloasma • Nevus (continues)
Recognize Pigment Disorders of the Skin (continued) • Stains • Tan • Vitiligo
List Hypertrophies of the Skin • Keratoma – callus • Mole – small brownish spot or blemish • Skin tag – small brown or fleshcolored outgrowth of the skin • Verruca – wart
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Understand Skin Cancer • Basal cell carcinoma • Squamous cell carcinoma • Malignant melanoma (continues)
Understand Skin Cancer (continued) The ABCDE cancer checklist A – Asymmetry B – Border C – Color D – Diameter E – Evolving
Examine Acne and Problem Skin • Retention hyperkeratosis – hereditary tendency for acne-prone skin to retain dead cells in the follicle (continues)
Examine Acne and Problem Skin (continued) • Propionibacterium acnes – anaerobic (cannot survive in the presence of oxygen) • Acne papule – inflammatory acne lesion resulting from follicle wall rupture and infusion of blood (continues)
Examine Acne and Problem Skin (continued) Acne Treatment • Cleansers and toners for oily skin • Follicle exfoliants • Avoidance of fatty skin-care products • Light moisturizer
Analyze Aging Skin Issues Intrinsic Factors –skin aging factors over which we have little control • Genetics and ethnicity • Gravity • Facial expressions
Extrinsic Aging Factors Extrinsic factors – environmental factors • • Sun exposure Smoking Overuse of alcohol Smoking and drinking together Stress Poor nutrition Exposure to pollution
Understand the Sun and its Effects • 80 to 85 percent of aging is caused by sun’s rays. • UVA rays – weaken the collagen and elastin fibers • UVB rays – burning rays that cause sunburn and tanning by affecting the melanocytes
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Protection from the Sun • Avoid deliberate exposure. • Avoid prolonged exposure. • Apply sunscreen liberally. • Avoid exposing children under six months old. • Wear hat and protective clothing outdoors.
Recognize Contact Dermatitis An inflammation of the skin caused by having contact with certain chemicals or substances. • Allergic Contact Dermatitis • Irritant Contact Dermititis
Allergic Contact Dermatitis • Caused when skin is allergic to an ingredient or product. • Sensitization – an allergic reaction created by repeated exposure to a chemical or substance
Irritant Contact Dermatitis • Caused when irritating substances temporarily damage the epidermis • Examples: corrosive substances or exfoliating agents • Avoided by wearing gloves when working with irritating chemicals
Protect Yourself • Keep tools and surroundings clean (proper disinfection of brush handles, containers, surfaces, etc. ). • Wear protective gloves. • Keep hands clean and moisturized.
Summary and Review • The skin is the largest organ of the body and protects us from the environment, regulates body temperature, and provides sensation. • The skin can be affected quite easily by most salon services. • By learning to identify the various diseases and disorders of the skin, you will be able to provide more effective and safe services for your clients.
Chapter Review Questions 1. Define a primary skin lesion and list three types. 2. Define a secondary skin lesion and list three types. (continues)
Chapter Review Questions (continued) 3. Name and describe at least five disorders of the sebaceous glands (continues)
Chapter Review Questions (continued) 4. Name and describe at least five changes in skin pigmentation. (continues)
Chapter Review Questions (continued) 5. Name and describe three forms of skin cancer. 6. What are two major causes of acne and how should they be effectively treated? 7. What is the most significant factor in aging of the skin and increasing risk of all types of skin cancer? (continues)
Chapter Review Questions (continued) 8. Explain the effect of overexposure to the sun on the skin. 9. What is contact dermatitis and how it can be prevented?