Chapter 8 Blood and Blood Splatter By the

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Chapter 8 Blood and Blood Splatter By the end of this chapter you will

Chapter 8 Blood and Blood Splatter By the end of this chapter you will be able to: o o o 1 Explain the composition of blood Describe the function of blood cells Determine the blood type of a blood sample Conduct a blood splatter analysis Examine wounds and describe the nature of the weapon Find and process blood evidence All Rights Reserved South-Western / Cengage Learning © 2012, 2009 Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 8

Introduction and History o o o Blood typing provides class evidence DNA profiling provides

Introduction and History o o o Blood typing provides class evidence DNA profiling provides individual evidence A blood splatter pattern provides information • • 2 the truthfulness of an account by a witness or a suspect the origin of the blood the angle and velocity of impact the type of weapon used Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 8

Composition of Blood o o 3 Plasma—a liquid suspending other blood components Red blood

Composition of Blood o o 3 Plasma—a liquid suspending other blood components Red blood cells (Erthrocytes)—carries oxygen to the body’s cells and carbon dioxide away White blood cells (Leukocytes)—fights disease and foreign invaders and, alone, contain cell nuclei Platelets—aids in blood clotting and the repair of damaged blood vessels Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 8

Composition of Blood 4 Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 8

Composition of Blood 4 Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 8

Types of Blood Cells 5 Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 8

Types of Blood Cells 5 Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 8

Cellular Components of Blood 6 Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 8

Cellular Components of Blood 6 Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 8

Blood Typing—Proteins o o 7 Discovered in 1900 by Karl Landsteiner Identifies the presence

Blood Typing—Proteins o o 7 Discovered in 1900 by Karl Landsteiner Identifies the presence or absence of particular proteins embedded in the cell Quicker and less expensive than DNA profiling Produces class evidence but can still link a suspect to a crime scene or exclude a suspect Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 8

Blood Typing—Proteins 42% 8 12% 3% of the population in the United States Forensic

Blood Typing—Proteins 42% 8 12% 3% of the population in the United States Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 8 43%

Rh Factor 85% of the population has a protein called RH factor on their

Rh Factor 85% of the population has a protein called RH factor on their blood cells 9 Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 8

Blood Typing—Antibodies o o 10 Antibodies are Y-shaped proteins secreted by white blood cells

Blood Typing—Antibodies o o 10 Antibodies are Y-shaped proteins secreted by white blood cells that attach to antigens to destroy them Antigens are foreign molecules or cells that react to antibodies Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 8

Blood Enzymes o o 11 Enzymes are complex proteins that catalyze different biochemical reactions

Blood Enzymes o o 11 Enzymes are complex proteins that catalyze different biochemical reactions Many enzymes and proteins have been found in the blood that are important for identification purposes Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 8

Blood Typing —Probability and Blood Types o o The probability of a blood type

Blood Typing —Probability and Blood Types o o The probability of a blood type equals the product of probabilities for each protein group If Type A = 42% and Rh Factor = 85% Then A+ =. 42 x. 85 =. 357 (35. 7%) Knowing additional proteins and enzymes in the blood sample • • 12 Narrows the population group Increases the probability of identifying a suspect Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 8

Genetics of Blood Typing o There are 3 different alleles for blood type •

Genetics of Blood Typing o There are 3 different alleles for blood type • o A and B alleles are codominant • o If they are both present, they are both expressed O allele is recessive to A and B • • 13 IA, IB and io • A person will only have Type O blood if both alleles are ‘io’ Type A blood can be due to one or both alleles being IA Type B blood can be due to one of both alleles being IB

14 Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 8

14 Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 8

Genetics of Blood Type o There are two alleles for Rh factor • o

Genetics of Blood Type o There are two alleles for Rh factor • o Rh + is dominant over Rh • • 15 Rh + and Rh Someone who is Rh- will have two copies of that allele Someone who is Rh + can either have one or two copies of that allele Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 8

Blood Spatter/Splatter o o 16 1939—spatterns first analyzed Blood may spatter when a wound

Blood Spatter/Splatter o o 16 1939—spatterns first analyzed Blood may spatter when a wound is inflicted Blood spattern—a grouping of blood stains Patterns help to reconstruct the events surrounding a shooting, stabbing, or beating Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 8

Blood Splatter Analysis of a splatter pattern can aid in determining the: 17 •

Blood Splatter Analysis of a splatter pattern can aid in determining the: 17 • direction blood traveled • angle of impact • point of origin of the blood • velocity of the blood • manner of death Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 8

Blood Splatter Analysis Natural cohesiveness of blood 18 Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter

Blood Splatter Analysis Natural cohesiveness of blood 18 Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 8

Blood Splatter Analysis o Satellite droplets— • When blood falls from a height, or

Blood Splatter Analysis o Satellite droplets— • When blood falls from a height, or at a high velocity, • It overcomes its natural cohesiveness, and • Separates from the main droplet o Spiking patterns— • Form around the droplet edges when blood falls onto a less-than-smooth surface 19 Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 8

Blood Splatter Analysis —Directionality The shape of an individual drop of blood provides clues

Blood Splatter Analysis —Directionality The shape of an individual drop of blood provides clues to the direction from where the blood originated. How will the point of impact compare with the rest of a blood pattern? 20 Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 8

Blood Splatter Analysis Lines of convergence—two or blood splatters can pinpoint the location of

Blood Splatter Analysis Lines of convergence—two or blood splatters can pinpoint the location of the blood source 21 Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 8

Blood Splatter Analysis —Six Patterns Describe each of these: a) b) c) d) e)

Blood Splatter Analysis —Six Patterns Describe each of these: a) b) c) d) e) f) 22 Passive drops Arterial gushes Splashes Smears Trails Pools Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 8

Blood Splatter Analysis —Impact o o 23 Patterns can help investigators determine the type

Blood Splatter Analysis —Impact o o 23 Patterns can help investigators determine the type of weapon used What kind of a pattern is produced by a gun shot? What kind of a pattern is produced by a hammer blow? Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 8

Crime Scene Investigation of Blood 1. Search for blood evidence 2. Determine a. Is

Crime Scene Investigation of Blood 1. Search for blood evidence 2. Determine a. Is the evidence blood? b. Is the blood human? c. What is the blood type? 3. Interpret the findings: a. Does the blood type match a suspect’s blood? b. If not, exclude that suspect c. If yes, decide if DNA profiling is necessary 24 Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 8

. . . . Summary o o 25 Blood consists of cellular components and

. . . . Summary o o 25 Blood consists of cellular components and plasma. The various human blood types are caused by the presence or absence of A and/or B proteins on the surface of red blood cells. Blood splatter evidence can be used to recreate a crime scene. Investigators endeavor to (a) locate, (b) identify, and (c) interpret blood splatter patterns at crime scenes. Forensic Science: Fundamentals & Investigations, Chapter 8