Chapter 8 16 Sexual Behaviors Common sexual behaviors

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Chapter 8 & 16 Sexual Behaviors

Chapter 8 & 16 Sexual Behaviors

Common sexual behaviors One person • Celibacy • Erotic dreams & fantasies • Masturbation

Common sexual behaviors One person • Celibacy • Erotic dreams & fantasies • Masturbation More than one person • • • Kissing Touching Mutual masturbation Oral-genital stimulation Anal stimulation Penile-vaginal intercourse

Celibacy • Celibate: describes a physically mature person who does not engage in sexual

Celibacy • Celibate: describes a physically mature person who does not engage in sexual behavior. • Complete celibacy: individual neither masturbates nor has sexual contact w/another person. • Partial celibacy: individual masturbates but does not have sexual contact w/another person.

Celibacy, (cont. ) • Reasons, or benefits: – religious, moral beliefs – waiting for

Celibacy, (cont. ) • Reasons, or benefits: – religious, moral beliefs – waiting for the appropriate person – learning about other aspects of the self • During period of celibacy, can experience greater self-growth, focus on work-related/personal goals, friendships deepen, etc. – health considerations (pregnancy, STDs) – during substance abuse recovery (anxiety created in sexual relationships can precipitate a relapse) • Disadvantages: – lack of physical affection, intimacy

Erotic dreams • expression and exploration of desires • most males, 2/3 of females

Erotic dreams • expression and exploration of desires • most males, 2/3 of females • nocturnal orgasm – Involuntary orgasm during sleep

8 -A Discussion question: Do you think sexual fantasies can be helpful to a

8 -A Discussion question: Do you think sexual fantasies can be helpful to a relationship in any way? How? Under what circumstances, if any, do you think sexual fantasy might indicate a problem in a relationship? Consider the subject of fantasy, amount of fantasy, when fantasy occurs, etc.

Fantasy • 95% of men & women fantasize • Functions – source of pleasure

Fantasy • 95% of men & women fantasize • Functions – source of pleasure & arousal – overcome sexual anxiety – acceptable expression of “forbidden desires”

Fantasy (cont. ) • Gender similarities & differences – Frequency, amount of variety is

Fantasy (cont. ) • Gender similarities & differences – Frequency, amount of variety is similar in men & women. – Some differences: • Active vs. passive role • Focus: more physical vs. more emotional • Group sex • Dominance/submission

Fantasy (cont. ) • Are fantasies helpful or hindering? – Most research says helpful

Fantasy (cont. ) • Are fantasies helpful or hindering? – Most research says helpful – Cautions: • Does degree of fantasy hinder intimacy w/partner? • Acting out fantasies--are both partners comfortable w/it? • Guilt – Most threatening is fantasy about a friend or acquaintance – Can be healing in cases of sexual abuse

Masturbation HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE • Historically condemned – Rooted in Judeo-Christian views that saw only

Masturbation HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE • Historically condemned – Rooted in Judeo-Christian views that saw only sex for procreation as moral – Erroneous health concerns: “The health soon becomes noticeably impaired; there will be general debility. . Next come sore eyes, blindness, stupidity, consumption, spinal affliction, emaciation, involuntary seminal emissions, loss of all energy or spirit, insanity, and idiocy--the hopeless ruin of both body and mind. ” (Wood & Ruddock, 1918) – Freud recognized that masturbation wasn’t harmful, but said that it led to “immature sexual development” – Roman Catholic church considers masturbation to be an "intrinsically and seriously disordered act. "

Masturbation some general info • Contrary to earlier cultural views, all research on masturbation

Masturbation some general info • Contrary to earlier cultural views, all research on masturbation indicates that it is harmless. • Women are more likely to masturbate in and after their 20 s than in adolescence. Why do you think this is the case? • Factors associated with greater likelihood and frequency of masturbation: – – – Living with a sexual partner Engaging in more frequent sexual activity with a partner Having more education contrary to Having more liberal views about sex popular stereotype… Viewing sexual pleasure as a goal Being Caucasian

Masturbation PURPOSES • Relieve sexual tension • Means of self-exploration – Can improve quality

Masturbation PURPOSES • Relieve sexual tension • Means of self-exploration – Can improve quality of sexual experiences w/a partner • Shared experience • Assists in physical relaxation

Masturbation techniques • Men – Commonly grasp penile shaft, using up-and-down motions (w/ or

Masturbation techniques • Men – Commonly grasp penile shaft, using up-and-down motions (w/ or w/o lotion/lube) – Some rub against a mattress or pillow • Women – Wide variety of stimulation techniques – Most typical is manual stimulation of clitoris • Glans of clitoris is rarely stimulated directly--rather, through clitoral hood or labia minora – Contrary to what is often portrayed in pornography, most women do not use vaginal insertion to reach orgasm during masturbation (Hite study, 1976, 1. 5% of women used vaginal insertion) – Many women (and some men) enjoy vibrators during selfstimulation

Discussion question: What were you told about masturbation by your parents/other adults when you

Discussion question: What were you told about masturbation by your parents/other adults when you were a child? What would you want your own children to learn about masturbation? How would you talk to your child about masturbation at age 2? Age 5? Age 10?

Kissing • Lips and mouth have many nerve endings-therefore, very sensitive • Emotional expression

Kissing • Lips and mouth have many nerve endings-therefore, very sensitive • Emotional expression behind kisses can range from tender/affectionate/familial (e. g. closed-mouth, on cheek) to overtly sexual (e. g. open-mouth, on erogenous zones) • Kissing is not culturally universal – No indication of kissing in highly erotic art of ancient Chinese and Japanese cultures – Some cultures consider kissing unhealthy and disgusting (e. g. Lepcha of Eurasia, the Chewa and Thonga of Africa, and the Siriono of S. America)

Touching • One of the first and most important senses that we experience as

Touching • One of the first and most important senses that we experience as infants – Deprivation of touch in infants leads to stunted growth – Babies that received extra touching/massage showed improved neurological development, digestion, and sleep patterns • Erogenous zones are especially responsive to touch • Sexual touching of nonerogenous zones can enhance intimacy and arousal – Partners need to communicate about how and where they like to be touched b/c there is a great variety in personal preferences

Oral-genital stimulation • Can be done individually or (“ 69”) • Cunnilingus: oral stimulation

Oral-genital stimulation • Can be done individually or (“ 69”) • Cunnilingus: oral stimulation of the vulva • Fellatio: oral stimulation of the penis and scrotum – Couples differ in their comfort level for into the mouth – Flavor of ejaculate varies person to person influenced by simultaneously ejaculation from and is dietary factors

Attitudes toward oral sex • Some people think the genitals are unsanitary b/c they

Attitudes toward oral sex • Some people think the genitals are unsanitary b/c they are close to urinary opening and anus – Routine thorough washing of genitals w/soap and water is adequate for cleanliness • Some heterosexuals object to oral sex b/c they mistakenly believe it is a homosexual act • In general, frequency of oral sex is correlated w/ higher level of education & socioeconomic status. • Oral sex has become more common since 1950 s – “old days: ” oral sex rarely occurred before marriage, was considered more intimate than intercourse – Today: teens are more likely to have oral sex than intercourse-strategy to avoid intercourse and “technically” preserve virginity; also some mistakenly believe that they cannot contract HIV through oral sex

Anal stimulation • Anus has dense nerve endings--stimulation can be pleasurable for both men

Anal stimulation • Anus has dense nerve endings--stimulation can be pleasurable for both men and women • Anal intercourse: some statistics – Approx. 25% of all adults have experienced anal intercourse at least once (1994 study) – 32% of college students in a women’s health class had experienced anal intercourse (2003 study) – Among gay men, anal stimulation is less common than oral sex and mutual masturbation.

Anal stimulation • Health issues – No vaginal contact immediately following anal contact (manual

Anal stimulation • Health issues – No vaginal contact immediately following anal contact (manual or intercourse)--can lead to vaginal infection – Analingus (oral stimulation of anus) can cause intestinal infection, STD’s – Anal intercourse is one of the riskiest of all sexual behaviors in terms of transmission of HIV (particularly for receptive partner) (HIV, other infections) • Special considerations: – Anal tissue is very delicate: lubricants and gentle insertion needed – Objects must have larger base than tip so object cannot slip past anal opening

Coitus and Coital Positions • Position variations – man or woman above – face-to-face,

Coitus and Coital Positions • Position variations – man or woman above – face-to-face, side-lying, rear entry For many more varieties on positions, go to www. sexinfo 101. com/sp_index. shtml

Coital Positions: things to consider • Ability of each partner to control tempo, angle,

Coital Positions: things to consider • Ability of each partner to control tempo, angle, style of movement, and degree of penetration • Whether a position also allows manual stimulation (of clitoris, anus, etc. ) during intercourse • Emotional feeling of positions – Some positions can allow partners to enjoy being more aggressive or more passive – Some positions allow greater intimacy between partners • Physical abilities, level of energy required – Some positions require more muscular strength, more stamina; other positions can be more relaxing

Tantric sex • Focus is on spiritual enlightenment and shared intimacy • • –

Tantric sex • Focus is on spiritual enlightenment and shared intimacy • • – Begun in India around 5000 BC Sexual expression considered a form of spiritual meditation Involves control & delay of orgasm with focus on harmony with partner After penetration, thrusting is generally kept to a minimum, generating energy through subtle movements, such as muscle contractions Synchronized breathing, visualization, deep level of intimacy

Chapter 16 Less common Sexual Behaviors

Chapter 16 Less common Sexual Behaviors

What Constitutes “Less Common” Sexual Behavior? • Paraphilia: uncommon sexual expression – Sexual arousal

What Constitutes “Less Common” Sexual Behavior? • Paraphilia: uncommon sexual expression – Sexual arousal or response depends on (often unusual) behavior not directly sexual in nature – Behaviors discussed in book represent extremes on a continuum • Paraphilias exist in many gradations from mild/infrequent behaviors to full-blown/frequent behaviors – Thought to occur more frequently in males • May be due to biases in reporting & prosecution – Are often clustered (engaging in one paraphilia increases likelihood of additional paraphilias) – Can become solitary & compulsive interference with relationships

Noncoercive vs. coercive paraphilias • Noncoercive paraphilias: – No coercion (force), by definition –

Noncoercive vs. coercive paraphilias • Noncoercive paraphilias: – No coercion (force), by definition – May be a solo activity or may involve participation of consentual adults – No one’s basic rights are violated; therefore, considered harmless • Coercive paraphilias: – Involve participants who have not given consent – Can cause harm to targets • Targets may be traumatized psychologically

Four common noncoercive paraphilias Fetishism – Sexual arousal primarily from body part or inanimate

Four common noncoercive paraphilias Fetishism – Sexual arousal primarily from body part or inanimate objects. • For some people, sexual response can’t occur in absence of fetishized object; for others, object or body part enhances arousal but is not absolutely required. – Develops through classical conditioning • Fantasy and masturbation -- orgasm reinforces the association of pleasure w/the fetish. – Rarely harmful to others

Four common noncoercive paraphilias Transvestic Fetishism – Has strong elements of fetishism but clothing

Four common noncoercive paraphilias Transvestic Fetishism – Has strong elements of fetishism but clothing is actually worn (not just viewed or touched) – Different from cross-dressing-transvestic fetishism only applies when sexual arousal is derived from wearing clothes of other sex – Considered a disorder by the APA if person experiences significant psychological distress or impaired functioning as a result of behavior that has occurred for at least six months – Majority are male heterosexuals (often married)

Four common noncoercive paraphilias & Sexual Sadism & Sexual Masochism – sadism: sexual arousal

Four common noncoercive paraphilias & Sexual Sadism & Sexual Masochism – sadism: sexual arousal from giving physical or psychological pain – masochism: sexual arousal from receiving pain – difficult to label because some behaviors are common • Being tied up, or “pinned down, ” “love bites, ” etc. – Level of pain needed for arousal varies from symbolic to mild pain to (rarely) severe pain – SM activities often include bondage and “discipline, ” motivated by a desire to experience dominance and/or submission rather than pain.

Other (less common) noncoercive paraphilias • autoerotic asphyxia – Individual (almost always male) uses

Other (less common) noncoercive paraphilias • autoerotic asphyxia – Individual (almost always male) uses oxygen deprivation to enhance arousal – Life-threatening (hanging, plastic bag suffocation, etc. ) • klismaphilia – Sexual pleasure from receiving enemas • coprophilia – Sexual pleasure from contact with feces • urophilia : – Sexual pleasure from contact with urine (“water sports” or “golden showers”)

Three common coercive paraphilias Exhibitionism-exposing genitals to unwilling other - not same as enjoying

Three common coercive paraphilias Exhibitionism-exposing genitals to unwilling other - not same as enjoying being nude/wearing sexy clothes – Usually men, • Often shy or insecure, frequently raised in atmospheres w/shameful attitudes toward sexuality – Development • • inadequacy & fear of rejection need to affirm manhood attention-seeking loss of ethical controls – some offenders commit more serious crimes – suggested response • calmly ignore it, distance yourself, and report it ASAP

Three common coercive paraphilias Obscene phone calls – sexual arousal from response to call

Three common coercive paraphilias Obscene phone calls – sexual arousal from response to call (especially shocked or horrified response) – usually a shy, insecure male, suffering from strong feelings of inadequacy & insecurity – may be verbally abusive or threatening, though obscene callers rarely follow up w/physical attack. – suggested response • lack of overt reaction will deprive caller of pleasure and he’ll be unlikely to call again. • gently hang up, ignore re-call • screen calls; call tracing • report & ask for new number

Three common coercive paraphilias Voyeurism – observing others undressing or engaging in sexual activity,

Three common coercive paraphilias Voyeurism – observing others undressing or engaging in sexual activity, without their consent – Not the same as looking at porn/erotica – To be considered a paraphilia, voyeurism must be preferred to sexual relations w/a partner or must involved some risk (or both). – offenders often feel inadequate & lack socio-sexual skills – video voyeurism • Video cameras installed to invade privacy of unaware victims

Other Coercive Paraphilias • Other coercive paraphilias involving sexual arousal or pleasure from. .

Other Coercive Paraphilias • Other coercive paraphilias involving sexual arousal or pleasure from. . . – frotteurism: rubbing against unwilling victim • Fairly common--may go unnoticed – zoophilia: sex with animals • Commonly a tranistory experience for an adolescent to whom a partner is inaccessible or forbidden--most transition to adult sexual relations w/partners. – necrophilia: viewing or having intercourse w/ a corpse (very rare) • Appears to occur exclusively in males • Almost always manifest severe emotional disorders, hatred & fear of women common

Discussion question: What is the difference between sexual variation and sexual deviation? Who determines

Discussion question: What is the difference between sexual variation and sexual deviation? Who determines when the line has been crossed?

Discussion question: People are typically much less concerned about female exhibitionism than they are

Discussion question: People are typically much less concerned about female exhibitionism than they are about male exhibitionism. For example, if a woman observed a man undressing in front of a window, the man might be accused of being an exhibitionist. However, if the roles were reversed and the woman was undressing, the man would likely be labeled a voyeur. What do you think of this sex-based inconsistency in labeling these behaviors?