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Chapter 7 Spain and Portugal © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Objectives • After reading this chapter, you should be able to – identify the major wine regions of Portugal and Spain. – display a solid understanding of the various microclimates and soil types of the Iberian Peninsula. – describe the different types of wines produced in Spain and Portugal. – explain the role of governmental agencies in the production, promotion, and marketing of Spain’s and Portugal’s wines. – discuss the position of Spanish and Portuguese wines in the U. S. market, currently and in the near future. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Introduction • The vinifera grape is indigenous to the Iberian Peninsula, and from the time of the Roman Empire wine has been produced and exported from the region. • These countries remain important wine producers to this day, Spain ranking #3 in the world for total production and Portugal #6. • Both countries have suffered through natural disasters and political upheaval, all of which adversely affected wine production. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Introduction (continued) • By the 1960 s, the image of wine from the Iberian Peninsula was not one of quality. – Spain was known for over-oaked reds and oxidized whites, and the production of sherry was in turmoil. – Portugal was known only for sweet rosé and Port. • In the past 30 years, both countries have made extraordinary progress in modernizing production and upgrading the quality of their table wines. • This improvement has been aided by collaboration between the private sector and government. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
The Wine of Spain and Portugal— A Historical Perspective • The Phoenicians arrived around 1100 BC and engaged in the first commercial winemaking on this vast peninsula. • The Carthaginians invaded Iberia around 250 BC and expanded the production of wine, exporting it to all parts of the Roman Empire. • Wine production and exports continued when the Romans took control of Iberia in the 2 nd century BC. • After the Roman Empire fell in the first century AD, winemaking continued, but the exportation of wine was greatly reduced. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
The Wine of Spain and Portugal— A Historical Perspective (continued) • In AD 711, the Visigoth kingdom was overthrown by the Moors, an Islamic tribe from North Africa. – The Moors ruled peacefully for 600 years and did not demand the cessation of viticulture even though Islam forbade the consumption of alcohol. – Wine was taxed, and Christians and Jews were allowed to continue making and consuming wine. – By 1320, Christians were largely successful in their efforts to reconquer Iberia, and trade with the rest of Europe increased. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Spanish Wine— Historical Perspective • In 1492, Spain became a united Christian country when the Spanish Army drove the Moors from Granada. – The Spanish Inquisition, beginning in 1492, was condemned by other Europeans, but opened the way for European merchants to come into Spain. – The Spanish wine that attracted the most attention from these foreign traders was Sherry. – By the late sixteenth century it was the best selling wine in England. Trade with other parts of Europe also expanded. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Spanish Wine— Historical Perspective (continued) • Relations between Spain and England deteriorated after Henry VIII divorced Catherine of Aragon in 1533. – Tensions escalated into war, and trade declined and remained sporadic even after the English defeated the Spanish Navy in 1588. – The English imposed heavy taxes on Spanish wine, so Spain concentrated on building exports elsewhere while the Portuguese supplied wine to England. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Spanish Wine— Historical Perspective (continued) • Demand for wine increased during the seventeenth century fueling exports and the Spanish wine trade became well established. – By 1825 two-thirds of wine imported into England was Spanish, most of it Sherry. During the early nineteenth century, vineyard acreage in Spain increased fourfold. – Wine production in Spain was dealt a severe blow with the arrival of phylloxera in 1878, devastating vineyards. – As in other wine regions, the vineyards were replanted with better varieties. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Spanish Wine— Historical Perspective (continued) • Spain was unable to continue the improvement of its wine production and exports due to the political turmoil created by the Spanish Civil War of 1936– 1939 and the isolation resulting from the dictatorial regime of General Francisco Franco. – In the years since Franco’s death in 1975, Spain has recovered and so has her wine trade. – This was due in part to a nationwide system of quality control laws formed in 1972 and to the introduction of modern technology. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Portuguese Wine— Historical Perspective • Portugal’s first Parliament was established in 1249, thereby reducing territorial disputes and opening the way to international trade. • England was a particularly important trading partner shipping commodities to Portugal in exchange for wine. • When England France went to war in the seventeenth century and French wine became unattainable, the natural beneficiary was Portugal. Wine shipments to England increased dramatically. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Portuguese Wine— Historical Perspective (continued) • In the Douro region of inland Portugal, merchants found very deeply colored, intensely tannic red wines. • To ensure that these wines would make the journey to England unspoiled, they began fortifying these red wines with additional brandy. • In 1703 England Portugal further strengthened their trading partnership with the Treaty of Methuen which gave tariff advantages to Portuguese wines. • A thriving community of English merchants had established itself in the city of Oporto on the coast, from where they controlled the production and shipping of the increasingly popular Port. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Portuguese Wine— Historical Perspective (continued) • During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, conflicts between France and England continued to benefit the Portuguese wine trade. – The island of Madeira, a Portuguese colony off the coast of Africa, became an important trading post for passing ships. – That island began shipping its own fortified wine to England her colonies. – The British colonies in North America were also an important market for the wines of Portugal. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Portuguese Wine— Historical Perspective (continued) • In the late nineteenth century, Portugal’s vineyards were struck by the same natural disaster as those in the rest of Europe—phylloxera. Some wine regions have never recovered. • As she entered the twentieth century, Portugal remained in isolation during a 20 -year period of political and economic disruption. • By international agreement, in 1916 Portugal was granted the sole right to use the terms “Port” and “Madeira. ” © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Portuguese Wine— Historical Perspective (continued) • In 1937 the Junta Nacional do Vinho was created to oversee wine production. The JNV encouraged grape growers and small producers to work together. • In the next 20 years, over 100 cooperatives were built mostly in northern Portugal to produce wine and sell it domestically and abroad. • The system imposed by the central government was not conducive to experimentation or improvement of techniques, and standards deteriorated. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Portuguese Wine— Historical Perspective (continued) • In 1976 Portugal held a successful democratic election, and immediately began its ascent into modern Europe. – In 1986 Portugal was admitted to the E. U. , which greatly benefited the wine industry. – The improvement in the quality of table wines can be attributed to improved technology and innovative winemakers. – A group called the G 7 is made up of seven vintners from seven different regions working since 1993 to promote awareness of Portuguese table wines in foreign markets. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Government Involvement • The governments of Spain and Portugal have been actively involved with promoting wine trade. This support takes three forms: – quality control laws that set boundaries of regions, and regulations for the production of wines – support of research in viticultural and enological technologies and investment in training and equipment – national programs that promote their countries as world -class wine regions and assist in developing marketing strategies © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Spain’s Denominación de Origen Laws • Spain’s efforts to control the production of wine began in 1926 with the official demarcation of the Rioja region. – The process was completed in 1972 with the passage of legislation that created the Instituto de Denominaciones de Origen (INDO) and established a system of Denominaciones de Origen (DO), the equivalent of France’s appellations d’origens. – There are presently fifty-five DOs in Spain. – Each of the DOs has its own consejo regulador, the local authority that oversees viticulture, production, labeling, and distribution of wine for that region. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Spain’s Denominación de Origen Laws (continued) • The regulations overseen by INDO include boundaries of wine regions, allowed varietals, yield per hectare, pruning and trellising methods, vinification and aging requirements, minimum alcohol content, and labeling information. • Furthermore, since joining the E. U. , Spain has had to conform to continent-wide standards for winemaking, land use, and marketing and distribution of alcoholic beverages. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Quality Designations of the INDO • Within the Spanish system, all wine regions are designated at one of four levels of quality, and all wines coming from each region carry that same designation. • In ascending order of quality they are – vino de mesa – vino comarcal – vino de la tierra – quality wines © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Vino de Mesa • Vino de mesa: Basic table wine, the equivalent of France’s vin de table. • These wines are often blends of various grape varietals, and may come from several different regions. • No vintage date is shown, nor may any region of origin be mentioned on the label. – Within the vino de mesa designation there is a second tier for winemakers who produce a wine within a DO, but using unauthorized grapes or methods. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Vino Comarcal • Vino comarcal: This is a regional wine designation, similar to France’s vin de pays. – There are 21 regions in Spain, all of them quite large, with diverse growing conditions. – The label of a wine at this level would read “Vino Comarcal de [name of classified region]. ” – The producer can also choose to designate his wine as “Vino de Mesa de [the name of the province], ” followed by the vintage year. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Vino de la Tierra • Vino de la tierra: This designation is the same as France’s VDQS in that it is essentially a stepping-stone to the highest designation. – Producers of wines at this level hope that their district will someday receive DO status. – The wines are made entirely from authorized grape varietals, and they are grown within one district. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Quality Wines • Quality wines: Wines from official Denominaciones de Origen, made from authorized varietals and vinified and aged according to the regulations of that DO. – An additional level of quality was created in 1986 specifying that the most prestigious districts would be designated as Denominación de Origen Calificada (DOCa). – To date, only Rioja has been elevated to DOCa status. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Quality Designations of the INDO • The quality level of a DO or DOCa wine is indicated on its label by the amount of aging the wine received. – Vino de Cosheca: Vintage wine. At least 85 percent of the grapes used must be from the year shown. – Crianza: Wine is released in its third year, after spending at least 6 months in barrels, and an additional 2 years in the bottle. Some districts specify even more aging. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Quality Designations of the INDO (continued) – Reserva: Red wines aged at least 3 years, with one of those years spent in oak barrels. Most producers of fine reds will exceed the minimum requirements. – Gran Reserva: Produced only in the finest years, and only with the approval of the local consejo regulador, these wines must be aged for a minimum of 3 years in barrels and an additional 2 years in bottle. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Wine Laws of Portugal • Portugal created the world’s first demarcated wine region in 1756. – Demand for Port was so strong that some shippers began stretching the supply by adulterating the wine. • The government realized that fraudulent practices damaged the reputation of Port, so the boundaries of the Douro region were set and the government supervised production. • Between 1908 and 1929, geographic demarcations were drawn up for other major regions, such as Vinho Verde, Dão, Madeira, and Setúbal. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Wine Laws of Portugal (continued) • Portugal did not finalize the quality control laws for its wine trade until its admittance into the E. U. in 1986. – Portugal’s Denominação de Origem Controlada (DOC) is based on France’s Appellation d’Origin e Controlée. – Regulations set wine regions, viticultural practices, grape varietals, yields per hectare, vinification techniques, and labeling requirements. – All laws are set by the Instituto da Vinha e Vinho (Institute of Viticulture and Wines), which works with local authorities. – The Instituto do Vinho do Porto supervises the production and selling of Port. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Quality Designations • Within Portugal’s DOC system, wine regions are classified as: – Vinho de Mesa: Table wines are the lowest level of quality and are produced with minimal regulations and oversight. No vintage year may be stated. – Vinho Regional: There are eight regional wine areas. Moving from north to south (these VRs are Minho, Trás -os-Montes, Beiras, Ribatejo, Estremadura, Alentejo, Terras do Sado, and Algarve. At least 85 percent of the grapes that go into a wine at this level must be grown in the region, and the varietals used must be authorized for that region. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Wine Laws of Portugal • Denominação de Origem Controlada (DOC): Quality wines made under specific requirements and high standards from authorized grapes grown entirely within the DOC specified. – To date there are 40 DOCs. At this highest level of quality, additional information on the wine is found in the terms on the label. For instance, garrafeira signifies a red wine aged a minimum of 2½ years, including a year in the bottle. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Wine Laws of Portugal (continued) • For whites and rosés, the aging requirement is a minimum of 1 year. For all wines, a minimum alcohol content of 11. 5 percent is required. – The term reserva is used for high-quality wines from superior vintage years. – Colheita selecionada signifies a very high quality wine, from excellent vintages and often from prime vineyards. – The alcohol content must be 1 percent above the requirement for that DOC. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
The Wine Regions of Portugal • Portugal occupies the western flank of the Iberian Peninsula. • The culture and the climate are strongly influenced by the Atlantic Ocean. • Portugal is a small country—only 360 miles long and 120 miles wide. However, there is great diversity of terroirs. – In the North’s flat littoral areas along the Atlantic coast, the maritime climate produces warm summers and wet, cool winters. – As one moves inland or to the south, rainfall is considerably lower and temperatures more extreme. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
The Wine Regions of Portugal (continued) • Portugal developed its viticulture in isolation, and few varieties were brought in from the rest of Europe. – Among the indigenous grapes, the most important are Touriga National, Touriga Francesca, and Tinta Roriz (the Tempranillo of Spain). – In the cool damp north, the white grape Alvarinho (same as Spain’s Albariño) is prominent, especially in Vinho Verde. In the warmer drier south, a red grape that thrives is Castelão Frances, also known as Periquita. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
The Wine Regions of Portugal (continued) • There has been little experimentation in Portugal with common international varietals such as Chardonnay and Merlot. • Portuguese vintners and the government agencies are concentrating their marketing efforts on promoting indigenous varietals. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
The Wine Regions of Spain • Spain encompasses most of the Iberian Peninsula and has 3. 5 million acres of grapevines, more than any other country. – Due to the arid and warm climate in most of the country and to a ban on irrigation, yields are low, averaging 1. 4 tons per acre. – In the north, at the foot of the Pyrenees and on the northwestern coast, temperatures are moderate and rainfall adequate. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Grape Varieties of Spain • In these cooler regions, the primary grape varietals for white wines are Viura (also called Macabeo), Albariño, and Verdejo. In the south and interior, Airén, is very widely planted. • For red wines Tempranillo is the most-widely planted of the quality wine-producing varietals and Garnarcha (Grenache) is the second. • In Spain’s warmest and driest section, the southern Andalucía province, most vineyards are planted to grapes for Sherry—Palomino and Pedro Ximénez. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
The Wine Regions of Spain • Spain is divided into seventeen autonomías, or “autonomous communities, ” analogous to the 50 U. S. states. • Most of these regions have demarcated wine zones, or denominaciones de origen, within their boundaries. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Galicia: Rías Baixas and Ribeiro • The northwest region of Galicia is Spain’s coolest and most humid section. – The Albariño covers 90 percent of vineyard acreage throughout Rías Baixas, even though the DO law allows 11 different varietals. – After the phylloxera devastation in the late 1900 s many of Rías Baixas’ vineyards were torn out or replanted to hybrid vines that produced mediocre wine. – Today many property owners have replanted their land to Albariño. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Galicia: Rías Baixas and Ribeiro (continued) • The DO Ribeiro extends along the Miño River and concentrates on white wine. – The small quantities of light-bodied red wine (primarily Garnacha) are mostly consumed locally. – After phylloxera, most farmers chose to replant with Palomino, which was unsuited to the cool maritime climate. – Recently landowners have begun to replant, using two white varietals better suited to their climate, Torrontés and Treixadura. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Castilla y Léon: Ribera del Duero, Rueda • The two most important of the five DOs in the region are located on opposite sides of the Duero River, they are Ribiero del Duero and Rueda. – Ribeiro del Duero straddles the wide valley of the Duero River (called the Douro in Portugal). – The vineyards lie on the slopes of the hills reaching 2, 600 feet. At this altitude there is considerable temperature fluctuation between day and night. – Although such conditions make viticulture risky, they help to maintain acidity levels. – The principal grape here is Tinta Roriz (Tempranillo). © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Castilla y Léon: Ribera del Duero, Rueda (continued) • Extending south from the Duero River, on a bleak flat plain, is the DO Rueda. – Rueda fell into mediocrity after phylloxera wiped out her vineyards. When property owners replanted in the early years of the twentieth century, they made the same mistake as vintners in the Ribeiro district planting Palomino. – Fortunately the region now produces good quantities of fresh, crisp, Verdejo, as well as Sauvignon Blanc fermented in stainless steel tanks and released young. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Rioja • Rioja is Spain’s best-known and most prestigious wine region and has 120, 000 acres of vineyards. – In 1991, a ministerial decree granted Rioja the status of Denominaçion do Origen Calificada, the first, and so far the only, wine region to be granted this ranking. – Rioja is located in the northernmost part of the country, near the Pyrenees Mountains. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Rioja (contnued) • Although small, Rioja is divided into three subzones, each with a distinct microclimate and terroir. – The northwest zone is called Rioja Alta. The soil is a combination of clay and limestone, and the climate is cool. – The center zone, Rioja Alavesa, mixes Atlantic influences with warmer drier air from the Mediterranean. The soil is similar to the limestone and clay of Rioja Alta. – The eastern zone, Rioja Baja (lower Rioja), has warmer, drier weather, and its soil is mostly alluvial. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Rioja (contnued) • Seventy-five percent of the wine produced in Rioja is red, and the principal grape is Tempranillo. – Three other red grapes are authorized. Garnacha, Mazuelo (Carignan), and Graciano are blended into red wine in small quantities. – There are three authorized white varietals, Viura, Malvasia, and Garnacha Blanca. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Navarra • Next to Rioja in the foothills of the Pyrenees is the DO of Navarra, which has been producing wine since Roman times. – Fully 80 percent of Navarra’s vineyards are planted to Garnacha grape. Under proper conditions, Garnacha can produce soft, fruity, and aromatic reds. – Tempranillo is the second most widely planted red varietal. – White wines account for only 10 percent of Navarra’s production and are made primarily from Viura. – Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Chardonnay are now authorized by the local Consejo Regulado. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Cataluña: Penedès, Priorato • Cataluña on the Mediterranean Sea in northeast Spain is centered around Barcelona, a busy commercial center for Cataluña’s wine trade. A short drive inland from Barcelona lie the vineyards and bodegas of several exciting DOs. • Penedès is home to the Torres family, who run a large, thoroughly modern winemaking facility in Penedès, as well as properties in Chile and Sonoma, California. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Cataluña: Penedès, Priorato (continued) • Penedès remains the principal source for Cava, producing 90 percent of the country’s sparkling wine. – The term “Cava, ” from the Spanish word for “cave” or aging cellar, was adopted by the Spanish government in 1970 as an official denominaçión. – The term Cava is limited to sparkling wine made in the Champagne method from grapes grown in certain regions. – Total production of Cava is now over 12. 5 million cases per year. Major producers include Codorníu, Freixenet, Paul Cheneau, and Segura Viudas © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Cataluña: Penedès, Priorato (continued) • Priorato is a small DO with only 4, 300 acres of vineyards surrounded by the large DO of Tarragona. – The region has cold winters but long hot and dry summers. The grapes, mostly Garnacha and Cariñena (Carignan), get very ripe in these conditions. – The result is a very full-bodied, intense red wine with high alcohol levels (the legal minimum is 13. 5 percent, but the wine usually goes higher). – French varieties, especially Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah, are also being produced and show promise. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
La Mancha • The Central Plain of Spain is vast and flat, and vineyards stretch as far as the eye can see. – There are over 1 million acres of vineyard in the DO. La Mancha produces one-third of Spain’s wine production. – Most of the wine is sold in bulk, or is distilled into brandy or used to make vinegar. Over 90 percent of the acreage is devoted to the hearty white varietal with little character Airén. – The local Consejo Regulado is encouraging growers to replace Airén. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Andalucía: Jerez (Sherry) • The great fortified wine, Sherry, is made in the small Jerez section of Andalucía in Southern Spain and often underappreciated. – The name “Sherry” is an English corruption of “Jerez. ” – Sherry can be a crisp dry aperitif (fino) or a deeplyflavored dessert wine (oloroso), with a range of styles in between. – Today the winemaking adheres to traditions but is also thoroughly modern. – The grapes used, Palomino and Pedro Ximénez, are well adapted to the dry warm climate. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Andalucía: Jerez (Sherry) (continued) • Once harvested, the grapes are brought to the Sherry houses, where they go through a normal first fermentation until dry. • The new wine is then placed into casks where it is left for the flor yeast to form on the surface of the wine. • The flor develops like a thin white carpet over the entire surface of the wine. • These casks will become Fino Sherry and aged in a fractional aging system called a solera. • At the end of the aging period, Fino is removed from the older casks in the solera and fortified sparingly with additional alcohol. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Andalucía: Jerez (Sherry) (continued) • Amontillado is a style of Fino that is left longer in the solera. It is, accordingly, darker in color, richer, but dry, and nutty in flavor. • In other casks, minimal flor will grow, thus exposing the wine to air inside the cask. These casks will be classified as oloroso, and fortified to 18° Brix. • The fortification kills the remaining yeast and leaving unfermented sugars. Oloroso Sherries spend longer in the solera, acquiring a deep color and richly concentrated, sweetly raisined flavors. • Some olorosos are further sweetened through the addition of juice from sun-dried Pedro Ximénez grapes. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
The Wine Regions of Portugal • There a total of 988, 000 acres of vineyards planted in eight vinho regional areas. • Within those VRs are 40 Denominçãos de Origem Contralada. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Vinho Verde • The northwest vinho regional of Minho is famous for its bright, acidic, very dry white wines. • The best-known DOC is Vinho Verde (literal translation: “green wine”). – Vinho Verde is Portugal’s largest demarcated wine region, extending from the city of Oporto north to the border with Spain. – Vintners here employ high trellises, allowing vegetables to be grown under the vines. – The principal white grape is Alvarinho, made into popular, sprightly wine. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Douro • This region is named for the Douro River, which begins as the Duero in Spain and flows across Portugal to empty into the Atlantic. – Famous for its fortified wine, Port, the Douro region is gaining a reputation for solid, balanced red table wines, which now make up one half its production. – The vineyards for both Port and table wines are located inland, in the rocky, rugged hills of Trás-os-Montes (“behind the mountains”). © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Douro (continued) • The soil is primarily hard, mineral-laden rock that retains heat and is very difficult for roots to penetrate. • There almost 90 approved varietals for Douro, but the favored grapes for both types of wine are Touriga Nacional and Tinta Roriz (Tempranillo). • For white Port, the favored varietals are Malvasia Fina and Gouveio (thought to be the Verdelho of Madeira. ) © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Douro and Port • Unquestionably the most famous wine coming out of the Douro is still Port. – Fortified with clear grape brandy that kills the yeast cells before fermentation is completed, Port has a natural sweetness from the sugars that were prevented from fermenting. – The final product is between 18 and 20 percent alcohol. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Douro and Port (continued) • After fermentation, the wine is pumped into barrels where it rests through the winter. – The following spring the wine is shipped to the coastal city of Oporto where the major Port companies, such as Croft, Fonseca, and Dow, have their caves or aging facilities. – The wine is then classified, aged, and bottled before shipping to markets throughout the world. – By law no more than one-third of a company’s stock can be released for sale in any year. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Styles of Port • It is the aging process that determines a Port’s style. There are two basic categories: – Wood-matured Ports are left for a short time in large wooden casks to age and are ready to be drunk when bottled and released. – Bottle-aged Ports, on the other hand, are intended to be aged further upon release. They are bottled young and aged for up to 20 to 30 years to fully mature. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Styles of Port (continued) • Ruby: This is the youngest and simplest style of Port. It is meant to be consumed early. – Wine from several vintages are blended together and aged briefly before being filtered and bottled. • Tawny: One would assume that the amber color has come from aging but most commercial tawnies are not much older than rubies. – The light color is attained by fermenting inferior, lighter -colored grapes, or by blending in white Port. • Approximately 80 percent of Port is simple ruby or commercial tawny. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Styles of Port (continued) • Aged Tawny: This style of tawny comes by its color legitimately, as it must be aged in wood casks for six years or more. – Aging gives the wine a smooth soft texture. – Aged tawny carries an indication of age, either 10, 20, 30, or over 40 years, which is an average of the ages of the various years’ produce in that bottling. – Aged tawnies are made from quality grapes and must pass a taste test by the IVP before bottling. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Styles of Port (continued) • Vintage Port: For an exceptional vintage, a Port maker will keep the resulting wine separate. – After a year aging, the wine is assessed to determine whether it is of quality to be made into Vintage Port. – If so, the company will send a sample to the IVP, and if the wine passes the test, the Port maker can declare a vintage. – The single-vintage wine is then aged a further two to three years before being bottled and released. – After bottling, consumers can age vintage Port for an additional 20 to 30 years. – These are the rarest and most expensive of Ports. Only 1 percent of Port sold is from this category. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Styles of Port (continued) • LBV: Late-bottled vintage Port is a single vintage wine bottled between the fourth and sixth year after harvest. – Filtered and cold-stabilized before bottling, they throw less sediment than vintage Port. – LBV wines are made in good years that were not good enough to be declared a vintage. – They need less time to mature than a vintage Port, and can be consumed within 5 years after bottling. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Styles of Port (continued) • White: White Port is made in essentially the same method as red. – Brandy is added to arrest fermentation at the same stage, leaving residual sugars. – White Ports, therefore, are medium-sweet. Alcohol content is between 16. 5 and 17 percent as opposed to the 19 to 20 percent common in red Port. – White Ports are aged usually no longer than 18 months, mostly in stainless steel tanks. – White Port is usually served chilled as an aperitif. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Bairrada and Dão • The vinho regional, Beiras is a large region that stretches the width of Portugal, south of Vinho Verde and Douro, from the Atlantic Coast inland to the mountains. • Bairrada is along the coast. Vineyards were once banned due to their use to adulterate Port, but after efforts by vineyard owners, it was recognized as an official wine region in 1979. – Over 70 percent of the vineyards are planted to Baga, which produces the stout, tannic red wine for which the region is famous. – All Bairrada wine must contain at least 50 percent Baga, and most growers sell their grapes to one of the six cooperatives. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Bairrada and Dão (continued) • Dão lies inland to the east of Bairrada. Surrounded by hills, it is protected from the winds and moisture of the Atlantic. – The region suffered from the creation of many cooperatives whose numbers restricted the amount of grapes available to private producers, thus lowering standards. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Bairrada and Dão (continued) • Such monopolistic practices were deemed inappropriate by the EU and were discontinued in 1986. – Now Dão has re-emerged as a producer of fine table wines, and 80 percent of the region’s wine production is red. – There are nine red grapes authorized, including Touriga Nacional. – Dão reds must be at least 30 percent Touriga Nacional. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Setúbal • The Setúbal Peninsula, south of Lisbon, protrudes into the Atlantic between the estuaries of the Sado and Tagus rivers. – The ocean and rivers provide moderating influences on the climate, and the warm temperatures and regular rainfall are excellent for growing grapes. – The fishing town of Setúbal lends its name to the peninsula, and Terras do Sado is the regional name for the wide range of table wines made on the peninsula. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Setúbal (continued) • The most famous wine, though, is a sweet fortified wine that also carries the name Setúbal, now a DOC. – In 1907, the region was demarcated as Moscatel do Setúbal for the principal grape, Moscatel (Muscat). – E. U. regulations, however, state that, to include the name of a varietal, a wine must be made at least 85 percent from that grape, and local customs allow as much as 30 percent other grapes. – Accordingly, since 1986 the DOC has been simply Setúbal. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Alentejo • Alentejo is a huge agricultural region, stretching from the Tagus River east to the border with Spain, and encompassing one-third of Portugal’s land mass. – Alentejo contains the majority of the country’s cork forests. – After a period of disarray in the 1970 s, Alentejo is again emerging as an important source of good table wines. – There is limited rainfall and extreme temperatures that often soar to over 100°F in summer. – Red wines are made mostly from Aragonêz (local name for Tinta Roriz or Tempranillo). © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Madeira • The small island of Madeira (only 36 miles long and 15 miles wide) lies off the coast of Africa. – Claimed by Portugal in 1420, the island was soon the site of vineyards. – The soil is mineral-rich clay atop volcanic rock, sunshine and rainfall are abundant, and the terraced slopes of the southeastern facing hills were soon producing high quality wine. – With the help of the British, Madeira wines were soon shipped to the Continent and to the New World. – By 1768, Madeira was demarcated as an official wine region. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Madeira (continued) • In the mid-1800 s shippers began to fortify the wine with additional alcohol so it could better withstand the long sea voyages. • It was discovered that the heat in the ships’ holds gave the wine additional smoothness and richness. • Today modern equipment is used. Brandy is added to arrest fermentation, the wine is placed for 3 to 4 months in an estufa, a heated vat that emulates the sun and shipboard heat. • After the aging and heating are complete, sweetening in the form caramel is added. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Madeira (continued) • The process is regulated by Madeira’s quality control agency, Insituto do Vinho da Madeira or IVM. • Even though 85 percent of the island’s vineyards are planted to the lesser red grape, Tinta Negra Mole, quality Madeira is made from four premium white grapes. • In accordance with E. U. regulations, each style of Madeira contains at least 85 percent of the grape for which it is named. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Madeira (continued) • In ascending order of sweetness, the styles of Madeira are: – Sercial: The most delicate and dry, with naturally high acidity. – Verdelho: With higher sugar content and lower acidity than Sercial, it is made in an off-dry style. – Bual (Boal): A heavier, richer wine, made in a sweet or semisweet style. – Malmsey: This is the sweetest of the Madeiras. It is made from Malvasia grapes grown in the warmest, sunniest vineyards. Additional richness and concentration of flavors are acquired during several years in wooden casks. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.
Summary • The progress made in the wine trade in both Portugal and Spain in the last half of the twentieth century, especially in the 20 years since both joined the European Union in 1986, is truly remarkable. • Innovation in the vineyard and modernization of wineries combined with the efforts of governments and private companies working together have brought new levels of quality. • All this has helped move Spain’s and Portugal’s many wines into competitive and improving positions within the worldwide marketplace. © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.