Chapter 7 Noncommunicable Diseases Personal Health Perspectives and

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Chapter 7: Non-communicable Diseases Personal Health: Perspectives and Lifestyles (4 th Edition) Floyd, Mimms,

Chapter 7: Non-communicable Diseases Personal Health: Perspectives and Lifestyles (4 th Edition) Floyd, Mimms, & Yelding Prepared by: Amy Rowland, Ph. D.

Chapter Objectives Ø Explain the mechanism by which cancers develop Ø List the personal

Chapter Objectives Ø Explain the mechanism by which cancers develop Ø List the personal health choices that reduce and individual’s risk of developing cancer Ø Define chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD) and describe its manifestations Ø Identify and differentiate the types of anemia

Chapter Objectives Ø Differentiate type 1 and type 2 diabetes Ø Define rheumatic diseases

Chapter Objectives Ø Differentiate type 1 and type 2 diabetes Ø Define rheumatic diseases and give examples Ø Identify three skin conditions related to ethnicity Ø Give examples of diseases of the digestive tract

Cancer Ø Refers to a group of diseases which result in the spread of

Cancer Ø Refers to a group of diseases which result in the spread of abnormal cells

Mechanism of Cancer Ø Gene p 53 normally acts as a tumor suppressor Ø

Mechanism of Cancer Ø Gene p 53 normally acts as a tumor suppressor Ø Sometimes a mutation occurs and p 53 no longer acts as a tumor killer Ø Telomerase (an enzyme) allows the cells to reproduce to form a tumor

Cancer Ø Carcinogens (aka cancer causing agents) l l Occupational hazards and pollutants Chemicals

Cancer Ø Carcinogens (aka cancer causing agents) l l Occupational hazards and pollutants Chemicals in food and water Certain viruses Radiation

Cancer Ø Diagnosis l l l Biopsy Magnetic resonance imagery (MRI) Computerized axial tomography

Cancer Ø Diagnosis l l l Biopsy Magnetic resonance imagery (MRI) Computerized axial tomography (CAT)

Cancer Ø Treatment l l Surgery Radiation Chemotherapy Hormone therapy

Cancer Ø Treatment l l Surgery Radiation Chemotherapy Hormone therapy

Cancer Prevention Ø Smoking Ø Nutrition and diet Ø Exposure to sunlight Ø Physical

Cancer Prevention Ø Smoking Ø Nutrition and diet Ø Exposure to sunlight Ø Physical activity

Cancer Prevention Ø Alcohol Ø Smokeless tobacco Ø Estrogen Ø Occupational hazards Ø Ionizing

Cancer Prevention Ø Alcohol Ø Smokeless tobacco Ø Estrogen Ø Occupational hazards Ø Ionizing radiation

Cancer Prevention Ø Insert Figure 7. 1 here

Cancer Prevention Ø Insert Figure 7. 1 here

Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (COLD) Ø Also called COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), this

Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (COLD) Ø Also called COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), this disease is the third leading cause of death in U. S.

Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (COLD) Ø Bronchitis l l Inflammation and swelling of the

Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (COLD) Ø Bronchitis l l Inflammation and swelling of the bronchi Symptoms: cough, wheezing, shortness of breath Ø Emphysema l l l Alveoli are destroyed and non-functional Symptoms: cough, difficulty breathing Common causes: Tobacco smoke and air pollutants

Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (COLD) Ø Hay fever l l Allergic reaction in mucous

Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (COLD) Ø Hay fever l l Allergic reaction in mucous membranes of nose and upper respiratory tract Symptoms: sneezing, itchy/watery eyes and nose Ø Asthma l l Wheezing and difficulty breathing caused by narrowing and obstruction of the bronchioles Common causes: allergens, non-allergens, and stress-related causes

Anemia Ø Blood disorder characterized by insufficient quantity or quality of red blood cells

Anemia Ø Blood disorder characterized by insufficient quantity or quality of red blood cells

Types of Anemia Ø Iron-deficiency anemia-often results from inadequate amounts of iron in the

Types of Anemia Ø Iron-deficiency anemia-often results from inadequate amounts of iron in the diet Ø Pernicious anemia (also called B 12 deficiency)-the body is unable to absorb B 12 which causes a deficiency

Sickle Cell Disease Ø Sickle-cell disease-inherited disease which results in red blood cells which

Sickle Cell Disease Ø Sickle-cell disease-inherited disease which results in red blood cells which have a sickle shape Ø Insert figure 7. 6 here

Types of Diabetes Ø Type I (insulin dependent)-the pancreas doesn’t produce insulin Ø Type

Types of Diabetes Ø Type I (insulin dependent)-the pancreas doesn’t produce insulin Ø Type II (non-insulin dependent)-the pancreas produces some insulin but the body cannot use it effectively

Prevalence of Type II Diabetes Ø Insert Figure 7. 8

Prevalence of Type II Diabetes Ø Insert Figure 7. 8

Complications of Diabetes Ø Diabetic retinopathy Ø Cardiovascular complications Ø Kidney diseases Ø Diabetic

Complications of Diabetes Ø Diabetic retinopathy Ø Cardiovascular complications Ø Kidney diseases Ø Diabetic neuropathy

Signs and Symptoms of Diabetes Ø Type I – symptoms appear suddenly and dramatically

Signs and Symptoms of Diabetes Ø Type I – symptoms appear suddenly and dramatically l Fatigue, irritability, abnormal hunger and thirst, frequent urination, weight loss Ø Type II – symptoms are more subtle l Drowsiness, blurred vision, itching, slowhealing cuts, skin infections, numbness of fingers/toes

Rheumatic Diseases Ø Refers to over 100 diseases characterized by inflammation and pain in

Rheumatic Diseases Ø Refers to over 100 diseases characterized by inflammation and pain in tissues or joints

Rheumatic Diseases Ø Lupus Ø Osteoarthritis Ø Rheumatoid arthritis Ø Fibromyalgia

Rheumatic Diseases Ø Lupus Ø Osteoarthritis Ø Rheumatoid arthritis Ø Fibromyalgia

Skin Disorders Ø Pseudofolliculitis Ø Vitiligo Ø Keloid

Skin Disorders Ø Pseudofolliculitis Ø Vitiligo Ø Keloid

Diseases of the Digestive Tract Ø Peptic ulcers Ø Colitis Ø Diverticulitis Ø Gastroesophageal

Diseases of the Digestive Tract Ø Peptic ulcers Ø Colitis Ø Diverticulitis Ø Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) Ø Gallstones

Neurological Disorders Ø Headaches l l Tension Vascular • Migraines • Cluster • Toxic

Neurological Disorders Ø Headaches l l Tension Vascular • Migraines • Cluster • Toxic l l Organic Rebound

Neurological Disorders Ø Seizure Disorders (epilepsy) l Four forms of seizure • • Grand

Neurological Disorders Ø Seizure Disorders (epilepsy) l Four forms of seizure • • Grand mal Petit mal Psychomotor Jacksonian