- Slides: 85
Chapter 7 Immigrants and Urbanization
Bellringer • https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=jt. GVDOo Ua. Rs
Section 1 The New Immigrants
Objective Questions 1. From which parts of the world did immigrants come to the US? 2. For what reasons did they journey to America?
Through the Golden Door • Millions of immigrants came for a better life • Some came from southern and eastern Europe, about 1 million from Italy, Austria. Hungary, and Russia • Some left to escape religious persecution, rising population, land was scarce, too few jobs • Most Europeans arrived on the east coast
• On the west coast, Chinese arrived • Some came for gold rush in CA, build RR, after that they farmed or domestic service • In 1898, Hawaii was annexed and planters recruited Japanese workers • This increased Japanese immigration on the west coast
• Immigrants also arrived from West Indies (Jamaica, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and other islands) • Mexicans immigrated to find work and flee political turmoil
Analyzing Causes 3. What reasons did people from other parts of the world have for immigrating to the US? • Answer: • The desire to escape conditions such as land shortages, famine, and political or religious persecution; the prospect of land, jobs, or higher wages
Objective Questions 8. What difficulties did immigrants face on their journey to the US? 9. What were the differences and similarities between the two US immigration centers? 10. How did many immigrants cope after arriving in America?
Life in the New Land • Immigrants faced adjustments to an alien culture • They had to pass inspection at stations such as Ellis Island in New York • They were denied if they had disease or didn’t meet legal requirements such as: never being convicted of a felony, being able to work, showing they had some money
• Angel Island was on the west coast in San Francisco Bay • Mostly Asians- primarily Chinese • They faced harsh questioning and long detentions
vocabulary • Tuberculosis- a bacterial infection, characterized by fever and coughing, that spreads easily • Felony- any one of the most serious crimes under the law, including murder, rape, and burglary
Identifying Problems 11. What difficulties did immigrants face in gaining admission to the US? • Answer: • Medical and administrative inspections and, on Angel Island, harsh questioning and detention
• Immigrants had to find a place to live, get a job, try to learn a new language and culture • Ethnic communities were important • They helped one another • Immigrants were often viewed as a threat to the American way of life
Summarizing 5. How did immigrants deal with challenges they faced? • Answer: • They helped one another, forming ethnic enclaves, social clubs, and aid societies • vocabulary: • Synagogue- place of meeting for worship and religious instruction in the Jewish faith
Objective Questions 13. What did nativists believe? 14. How did the Chinese Exclusion Act and the Gentlemen’s Agreement limit Asian immigration?
Immigration Restrictions • Americans thought of the US as a melting pot, a mixing of people of different cultures and races who blended together by abandoning their native languages and customs • Many immigrants didn’t want to give up their cultural identities
• As immigration increased to did nativism • It was overt favoritism toward native-born Americans • Gave rise to antiimmigrant group and immigration restrictions
Vocabulary • Progressive- favoring advancement toward better conditions or new ideas
Anti-Asian Sentiment • Nativism had hold in the labor movement in the West • Native-born workers feared their jobs would go to Chinese immigrants, who would accept lower wages • A depression hit in 1873 that made jobs scarce • Labor groups put pressure on gov’t to restrict Asian immigration
• 1882, Congress stopped Chinese immigration for 10 years with the Chinese Exclusion Act • It banned entry to all Chinese, except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and gov’t officials • It was later extended and didn’t get repealed until 1943
Gentlemen’s Agreement • Anti-Chinese sentiment soon spread to Japanese and other Asian people in the early 1900 s • San Francisco segregated Japanese children by putting them in separate schools • Japanese protested and Pres. Teddy Roosevelt came to a deal
• Gentlemen’s Agreement, Japan’s gov’t agreed to limit emigration of unskilled workers to the US in exchange for the repeal of the San Fran segregation order • Asian immigration slowed on the West Coast but cities in the east and Midwest teemed with European immigrants
Section 2 Challenges of Urbanization
Bellringer • What would it be like for you to adjust to school in a foreign country? Suggest ways that you might help a foreign student adjust to school in the US • https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=RRhjqqe 750 A
Objective Questions • Why did many immigrants settle in the nation’s cities? • What was the goal of the Americanization movement? • For what reasons did a number of Americans move from the country to the cities?
Urban Opportunities • Tech boom in the 19 th century contributed to the rapid industrialization, growth of cities, mostly in NE and Midwest • Immigrants settled in cities b/c it was cheaper and more convenient • Cities offered unskilled jobs in mills and factories
• In 1890 there were twice as many Irish in NYC than Dublin • 1910, immigrant families made up more than half the total population of 18 major American cities
• The Americanization movement was designed to assimilate people of diff cultures into the dominant culture • It was sponsored by the gov’t and concerned citizens • Schools and associations teach immigrants skills they needed for citizenship, such as learning English, history and gov’t • Cooking and social etiquette was included
Analyzing Motives • Why did native-born Americans state the Americanization movement? • Answer: • To encourage newcomers to assimilate into the dominant culture
• Many immigrants didn’t want to abandon their traditions • Ethnic communities provided support • This helped them to speak their own language and practice their customs and religion • These neighborhoods became crowded as new immigrants kept arriving
Geography Skillbuilder • Page 263 in textbook
Migration from Country to City • Improvements for farming made it more efficient but meant fewer laborers needed • Rural people moved to cities to look for work • Many southern farmers who lost their livelihoods were AA • Moved to escape racial violence, economic hardship and political oppression • Conditions were only somewhat better
Objective Questions • What were the housing problems that many poor city dwellers faced? • What other difficulties did immigrants and poor residents encounter?
Housing • Two options: • Buy a house on the outskirts of town and face transportation issues • Rent cramped rooms in a boardinghouse in the central city • New housing such as row houses- single-family dwellings that shared side walls with similar houses, packed many residents into a single block
• Immigrants lived two or three families to a house • These multifamily urban dwellings were called tenements • There were crowded and unsanitary
Jacob Riis Photographs
• What housing problems did urban working class families face? • Answer: • Transportation difficulties, overcrowding, and unsanitary conditions
Transportation • Innovations in mass transit, transportation systems designed to move large numbers of people along fixed routes, enabled workers to go to and from jobs easily • Many linked neighborhoods to one another and to other communities • Cities struggled to repair old ones and to build new ones to meet the population demand
Water • Safe drinking water was important • Most cities built waterworks to handle demand • However, many cities had homes without indoor plumbing so residents had to collect water from faucets in the street and heat it for bathing
• Water quality had to be improved to prevent disease such as cholera and typhoid fever • Filtration was introduced and chlorination after that • Chlorination- a method of purifying water by mixing it with chlorine
Sanitation • It was hard to keep cities clean • Horse manure piled up on streets, sewage flowed through gutters, factories spewed foul smoke in the air • No dependable trash collection, people just dumped their garbage in the street • By 1900, cities had developed sewer lines and created sanitation depts but sanitation remained an issue
• How did conditions in cities affect people’s health? • Answer: • Lack of clean water and inadequate sanitation spread disease
crime • Pickpockets and thieves flourished • NYC organized the first full-time, salaried police force • Most other city law enforcement units were too small to have much impact on crime
Fire • Limited water supply helped spread fires • Fires occurred in every large city in the 1870 s and 1880 s • Most cities had wooden dwellings • Use of candles and kerosene heaters posed a hazard • The creation of fire depts and automatic fire sprinklers helped • Brick, stone and concrete also made cities safer
Objective Questions • What was the Social Gospel movement? • What was the purpose of settlement houses? • Who was Jane Addams?
Reformers Mobilize • Social gospel movement preached salvation through service to the poor • Reformers est settlement houses, community centers in slum neighborhoods that provided assistance to people in the area, esp immigrants • https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=6 rw. WN 9 Gy. GTw
• Ran by middle-class, college-educated women • Provided educational, cultural, and social services • Also visited nursing homes and aided them • Jane Addams was one of the most influential members and founded Full House in Chicago • Helped to cultivate social responsibility toward the urban poor
Section 3 Politics in the Gilded Age
Bellringer • https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Spgdy 3 H kc. Ss • Crash course gilded age politics
Objective Questions • What was a political machine? • What was the role of the political boss? • What role did immigrants play in the politics of many big cities?
The Emergence of Political Machines • Cities had inefficient governments • There was a new power structure, the political machine, and a new politician, the city boss
The Political Machine • An organized group that controlled the activities of a political party in a city • Offered services to voters and businesses in exchange for political and financial support
• Base were local workers and captains who tried to gain voters’ support on a city block or neighborhood and reported to a ward boss • Ward boss secured the vote in the electoral district • Ward bosses helped the poor and gained votes by doing favors or providing services
Summarizing • In what way did the structure of the political machine resemble a pyramid? • Answer: • Many local precinct workers and captains formed the base of the organization. In the middle were ward bosses. At the top was one city boss.
The Role Of The Political Boss • The boss controlled access to municipal jobs and business licenses, and influenced the courts and other municipal agencies • Some built parks, sewer systems, waterworks, and gave money to schools, hospitals, and orphanages • By solving problems they reinforced voters’ loyalty, win additional political support, and extend their influence
Immigrants and the Machine • Most precinct captains and bosses were first or second-generation immigrants • Few had more than grammar school education • Started into politics young and Worked up from the bottom • They supported immigrants and helped them get citizenship and in turn got their votes
Analyzing Motives • Why did immigrants support political machines? • Answer: • Because the machines could provides solutions to the immigrants’ most pressing problems
Objective Questions • What means did many political machines use to maintain power? • For what reasons was the Tweed Ring so notorious?
Municipal Graft and Scandal • Political machines turn to fraud to win elections • Once a machine got candidates in office, it could take advantage of numerous opportunities or graft, the illegal use of political influence for personal gain • Machines granted favors to businesses for cash, ex: allowing gambling • Cops didn’t stop it b/c they were employed by machines
The Tweed Ring Scandal • Boss Tweed was head of Tammany Hall • The Tweed Ring was a group of corrupt politicians defrauding the city
Vocabulary • Extortion- illegal use of one’s official position to obtain property or funds
Political Cartoon “The Tammany Tiger Loose” • Page 269 • Answer both skillbuilder questions
Objective Questions • What were the consequences of the patronage system? • What political reform efforts did Hayes, Garfield, and Arthur undertake? • What was the Pendleton Civil Service Act?
Civil Service Replaces Patronage • Patronage is the giving of government jobs to people who had helped a candidate get elected • It was also known as the spoils system • Cabinet workers to people who scrubbed the Capitol steps owed their jobs to political connections • Some gov’t workers weren’t qualified for their positions
• Some used their positions for personal gain • Reformers wanted to eliminate the practice and adopt a merit system for hiring • Jobs in civil service- government administration- should go to the most qualified
Analyzing Causes • How did patronage contribute to government incompetence and fraud? • Answer: • By allowing people to be hired for government jobs on the basis of political beliefs rather than ability, and by providing opportunities for the misuse of influence
Reform Under Hayes, Garfield, and Arthur • Civil service reform made progress under these presidents • Hayes couldn’t convince Congress to support reform so he named independents to the cabinet • He also set up a commission to investigate the nation’s customhouses, which were centers of patronage
• Hayes fired two top officials • This enraged the Republican senator and political boss Roscoe Conkling and his supporters, the Stalwarts • Hayes didn’t run for reelection and chaos broke out at the Republican convention, between the Stalwarts- who opposed changes in the spoils system- and the reformers
• Neither group won a majority so the convention settled on James Garfield • Chester Arthur was nominated as VP • Garfield was assassinated by a Stalwart • Arthur took over and urged Congress to pass a civil service law
• The result was the Pendleton Service Act • It authorized a bipartisan civil service commission to make appts to federal jobs though a merit system and performance
Objective Questions • Where did Cleveland Harrison stand on the tariff issue? • What was the Mc. Kinley Tariff Act of 1890? • What happened to tariffs when Cleveland was reelected, and how did things change when Mc. Kinley took office?
Business Buys Influence • Big business want to preserve or raise the tariffs that protected domestic industries from foreign competition • Democrats opposed high tariffs b/c it increased prices • 1884, Dem Grover Cleveland was elected and tried to lower tariffs but lacked Congressional support
• He ran for reelection against Ben Harrison • Harrison was financed by companies that wanted tariffs higher • He won and raised tariffs on manufactured goods
Analyzing Causes • What were the positive and the negative effects of the Pendleton Service Act?
Section 3 Assessment EX EX Corruption EX EX